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Plate I. — The Old Pickering House, Salem, Mass, 
1651. Frontispiece. 

Built in 







^WVAD • Q^S 



• ' N ^' I 

Copyright, IQI4, 
By Little, Brown, and Company. 

All rights reserved 
Published, October, 1914 

Printed by 
Louis E. Crosscup, Boston, U. S. A. 

0C^3 i9i4 







The study of old houses grows in interest with each 
additional discovery of good material, such as can be 
found in the old New England towns and cities, more 
especially those along the seacoast. The preservation 
of these old houses has done much to give us correct 
ideas^ of the interiors, though many of these, with the 
change of owners, have been stripped of their colonial 

Most of the houses that are shown in this book are 
private homes which have been opened by the owners 
to allow pictured representations of correct ancestral 
furnishing. Houses such as these possess the great- 
est charm — ancestral homes that have descended from 
generation to generation in the same family since their 

It has been a great pleasure to be allowed to visit 
these old mansions, which show wonderful staircases, 
richly carved mantels, and colonial windows, each one 
of which is an architectural gem. Through pictured 
homes like these one is given a deeper interest in the 
early life of our country and realizes more than ever 
before what the colonial period stood for in home 



I wish to acknowledge the kindness of my many 
friends in helping me to make this book possible, par- 
ticularly Mrs. Charles M. Stark of Dunbarton, New 
Hampshire, for use of the old Stark mansion ; the 
Colonial Dames of Massachusetts, for allowing correct 
representations in pictures of the Quincy Mansion ; 
the New Hampshire Society of the Sons of Cincin- 
nati, for the use of the Ladd-Gilman House ; Miss 
Caroline O. Emmerton of Salem, for permission to 
show the historic House of Seven Gables ; the His- 
torical Society of Marblehead, for the use of the Lee 
Mansion ; the Medford Daughters of the Revolution, 
for the old Royall House ; the Dalton Club of New- 
buryport, who have thrown open their club-house to 
be pictured ; Mrs. Jacob C. Rogers of Boston and 
Peabody ; Mr. Jacob C. Peabody of Danvers ; as well 
as many others, including Mr. John Pickering of 
Salem, who have allowed me access to their houses. 

We of New England are deeply interested in our 
historic homes, and it is to the lover of the colonial 
that I wish to show by picture and text the wonderful 
old mansions that are still in our midst, which have 
done much to bring New England into prominence 
in the architectural world of to-day. 

August 15, 191 4. 

[ viii ] 



I. Homes of Long Ago . 

II. The House of the Seven Gables 

III. The Pickering House 

IV. "The Lindens" .... 
V. The Rogers House 

VI. The Colonel Jeremiah Lee House 

VII. The Ladd-Gilman House . 

VIII. The Adams House 

IX. The Spencer-Pierce House 

X. The Governor Dummer Mansion 

XI. The Macphaedris-Warner House 

XII. The Wentworth House 

XIII. The Franklin Pierce House 

XIV. TjiE Savory House 
XV. The Stark Mansion . 

XVI. The Saltonstall House 

XVII. The Dalton House . 

XVIII. The Kittredge House 

XIX. The Royall House 

XX. The Longfellow^ House 

XXI. The Quincy Mansion . 

XXII. " Hey Bonnie Hall " 




















I. The Old Pickering House, Salem, Mass. 



II. Doorway, Oliver House, Salem, Mass. . 8 

III. Hallway, Oliver House; Living Room, Oliver 

House q 

IV. Hallway, Cabot Low House ; Fireplace, Oliver 

House ... ,. 


V. The House of the Seven Gables, Salem, Mass. 15 
VI. Hallway, House of the Seven Gables ; Hepzi- 

bah's Shop, House of the Seven Gables . 18 
VII. Dining Room, House of the Seven Gables; 

Parlor, House of the Seven Gables . . 19 

VIII. Attic, House of the Seven Gables ... 22 

IX. The Pickering House, Salem, Mass. . . 23 

X. The Pickering House, Side View ... 26 

XL Entrance Doors, Pickering House ... 27 

XII. Hallway, Pickering House .... 30 

XIII. Dining Room, Pickering House; Alcove, 

Pickering House 51 

XIV. Living Room, Pickering House; Drawing 

Room, Pickering House •• • . 34 
XV. Fireplace with Scriptural Tiles, Pickering 

House; the Old Pickering Sideboard . 35 




XVL "The Lindens," Danvers, Mass. . 

XVIL Hallway, "The Lindens" ... 39 

XVIIL Dining Room, "The Lindens" ; Chamber, 

"The Lindens" 42 

XIX. Drawing Room, " The Lindens " ; Library, 

" The Lindens " 43 

XX. Chambers in " The Lindens " . . 48 

XXI. The Rogers House, Peabody, Mass. . 49 

XXII. Doorway, Rogers House . . • 5^ 

XXIII. Parlor, Rogers House; Drawing Room, 

Rogers House • • • • • 53 

XXIV. The Lee Mansion, Marblehead, Mass. . 58 
XXV. Porch, Lee Mansion • • • • 59 

XXVI. Two Views of the Hallway, Lee Mansion 62 

XXVII. Wallpapers, Lee Mansion ... 63 

XXVIII. Wood Carving, Lee Mansion ... 66 

XXIX. Banquet Hall, Lee Mansion; Fireplace, 

Lee Mansion 67 

XXX. Chamber, Lee Mansion; Four-poster, 

Lee Mansion 7° 

XXXI. The Ladd-Gilman House, Exeter, N. H. 71 

XXXII. Parlor, Ladd-Gilman House ... 74 

XXXIII. Living Room, Ladd-Gilman House ; Rob- 

ert Treat Room, Ladd-Gilman House 75 

XXXIV. Middle Chamber, Ladd-Gilman House; 

Prison, Ladd-Gilman House . . 82 

















The Adams House, Newbury, Mass. 

Parlor, Adams House; Living Room 
Adams House .... 

Dining Room, Adams House . 

Tiie Spencer-Pierce House, Newburyport 

Hallway, Spencer-Pierce House 

Dining Room, Spencer-Pierce House 
Living Room, Spencer-Pierce House 

Parlor, Spencer-Pierce House . 

The Dummer Mansion, Byfield, Mass. 

Doorway, Dummer Mansion; Hallway 
Dummer Mansion 

Dining Room, Dummer Mansion; Den 
Dummer Mansion 

Two Views of the Living Room, Dummer 
Mansion ..... 

The Warner House, Portsmouth, N. H 

Doorway, Warner House ; Porch, Warner 
House ...... 


Living Room, Warner House . 

Parlor, Warner House 

The Wentworth House, Little Harbor, 
N. H 

Hallway, Wentworth House . 

Dance Hall, Wentworth House 


















Room in Wentworth House where Martha 
Hilton was made Bride . 








The Franklin Pierce House, Hillsboro, N. H. 

Library, Franklin Pierce House 

Sword given by the State of New Hampshire 
to President Pierce ; Bowie Knife used at 
Barbecue given at Hillsboro for President 
Pierce, and Canes presented to him by 
Notable Personages ; Sword presented by 
Ladies of Concord, N. H., to President 

The Savory House, Groveland, Mass. 

Porch and Gateway, Savory House . 

Hallway, Savory House; Chamber, Savory 
House ....... 

China Closet, Savory House; China Closet, 
Savory House, where China of Three 
Generations of Brides is Kept 

Parlor, Savory House; Living Room 
Savory House .... 

The Stark Mansion, Dunbarton, N. H. 

Old Mill, Stark Homestead 

Hallway, Stark Mansion ; Parlor, Stark 
Mansion ..... 

Dining Room, Stark Mansion . 

Saltonstall House, Haverhill, Mass. . 

Two Views of the Hallway, Saltonstall 





































Two Views of the Dining Room, Salton- 
stall House i86 

Chambers in the Saltonstall House 187 

The Dalton House, Newburyport, Mass. 190 

Porch, Dalton House .... 191 

Lower Hall, Dalton House ; Upper Hall, 
Dalton House .... 


Fireplaces, Dalton House 

The Kittredge House, Andover, Mass. 

Hallway, Kittredge House . 

Living Room, Kittredge House ; Parlor, 
Kittredge House . . . .212 

Soapstone Fire Frame, Kittredge House ; 
Fireplace, Kittredge House . .213 

The Royall House, Medford, Mass. . 218 

Doorway, Royall House . . .219 

Hallway, Royall House, from the Rear 222 

Spinning Room, Royall House . 223 

Kitchen Fireplace, Royall House . 226 

Chambers in the Royall House . . 227 

The Longfellow House, Cambridge, Mass. 236 

Library, Longfellow House . . -237 

The Quincy Mansion, Quincy, Mass. . 242 

Porch, Quincy Mansion . . . 243 

Dining Room, Quincy Mansion . . 246 





• 247 

LXXXIX. Kitchen, Quincy Mansion; 
Quincy Mansion 

XC. Paper hung for Wedding of Dorothy 
Quincy, Quincy Mansion , 

XCL Chambers in the Quincy Mansion 

XCn. Porch of the Middleton House, Bristol, 
R. I 

XCIIL Hallway, Middleton House; Fireplace, 
Middleton House .... 

XCIV. Living Room, Middleton House . 

XCV. Bridal Chamber, Middleton House 









Scattered here and there throughout the South, 
the Middle West, and the New England States, we 
find the homes of long ago standing as mute wit- 
nesses and representatives of periods in our coun- 
try's settlements that have become historical. 
We come across them by the wayside, when driv- 
ing along country roads, or we catch glimpses of 
them at the end of grassy lanes, surrounded by 
pleasant meadows, while others, jutting in between 
twentieth century houses in our large cities, serve 
to link the old days with the new. These old 
mansions are often tenantless ; some, with sagging 
roofs and gaping sides, are fast falling into decay. 
Still others, well preserved and freshly painted, 
surrounded by the well kept lawns and posy beds 
of our grandmothers' time, are survivals of a 
glorious past. 



Old houses are like old romances ; both are 
filled with mystery. Could they but speak, what 
fascinating tales they would reveal. They carry 
us back in imagination to one of the most eventful 
periods of our country's life — that of its struggle 
for freedom — and they inspire us with a desire 
to weave them into stories that will give authentic 
glimpses of the days when our country was young. 
Surrounding these ancient landmarks we find an 
irresistible and intangible charm that never fails 
to appeal, not only to the house-lover but the an- 
tiquarian as well. For, no matter how shabby 
the exterior may be, inside its four walls has been 
enacted a series of comedies and tragedies, which, 
if known, might overshadow the romances of the 
great masters of literature. 

In spite of the mystery surrounding these old 
homesteads, there is, nevertheless, something def- 
inite about them which has for the student of the 
past a deep meaning and a distinct appeal. 

Harking back, we find that each particular type 
of house represents a stage in the development of 
architecture. They cover a period when archi- 
tects were practically unknown. Many were 
evolved from the master builder's brain, while 
others have been developed little by little from 



early designs. Monuments of departed days, 
they stand models to which our present-day ar- 
chitects turn for inspiration. 

Few, if any, of the first houses are still standing. 
They were constructed of logs and had thatched 
roofs. The timber was, at first, hand sawed in 
saw pits dug for that purpose, a tedious process. 
Later on, sawmills were erected, but not in sufii- 
cient number to meet the demand for frame houses. 

The second period of house building brought out 
a new idea in construction. Some of these houses 
were built with two stories in front and one in the 
rear, this lower story being covered by an exten- 
sion of the sloping roof. The most imposing of 
this type were those which were designed with 
gables at the front and chambers underneath. 

In those days, the best kinds of lumber were 
plentiful, so the frame could be built of picked wood, 
preferably white oak. In houses of this style, 
the outer walls were daubed with clay, covered 
with boards. At first, they were called clay boards, 
the name being afterwards corrupted to clap- 
boards. Lime was rarely used in daubing, since 
lime was obtainable only by burning shells. Some- 
times clay was intermixed with straw. Many 
windows had small, diamond panes, set in lead 



cases. These may be found to-day In some of the 
old houses that have escaped vandalism. The 
windows were often divided into two parts and 
opened outward. 

The entrance hall in these old homes led into a 
large and imposing apartment. On the walls 
were hung frames containing hair flowers and 
funeral pieces wrought by hand. This was known 
as the "company" or "guest" room, used only 
on state occasions. The principal room was the 
kitchen with its sanded floor, often laid herring- 
bone pattern. This was used as a dining-room and 
kitchen combined. Through the center of the 
house ran a chimney six feet square, around which 
clustered the closets, many of them secret. Here 
were concealed the family treasures, plate, and 
perchance a refugee. The family gathering place 
was the kitchen. It requires little imagination 
tp repeople it with guests. Seemingly, we watch 
the elders seated on large, wooden settles inside 
the fireplace, roasting their faces, while they freeze 
their backs. The old iron crane swings outward, 
holding the jack, spit, and pot hooks. The Dutch 
oven covered with ashes contains the evening meal. 

The only light save the firelight was the pitch- 
pine torch, by whose flickering flame one read or 



sewed. Close at hand on a nail hung the old horn 
lantern ready for use, either to tend the stock or 
light a visiting neighbor home. It is an appealing 
picture of colonial life. 

Among the old houses there are none so full of 
interest as those which have been carefully pre- 
served in the same family, handed down from 
generation to generation. Over the threshold of 
these homes have passed men and women whose 
names are linked irretrievably with important 
events in our nation's history. 

In the early history of our country, few seaport 
towns stand out in bolder relief than Salem, Mas- 
sachusetts, a city noted at the commencement of 
the nineteenth century for her commercial pros- 
perity, and whose ships sailed to every port on the 
globe. These ships were small, clumsy affairs, but 
staunch in build. The cargoes were valuable 
ventures, sent by Salem merchants who were 
fearless plungers. The flavor of the sea still 
lingers about this seaport town, particularly along 
Derby Street, where, in the prosperous shipping 
days, social life was centered. 

Years crept on apace, and the country grew 
more prosperous with the increase of population ; 
and in the seaport town, more especially, came a 



demand for larger and better houses. Money 
circulated freely, and ventures proved successful. 
Trade steadily increased, bringing prosperity in 
its wake. Commerce was at its height, and the 
harbor was filled with incoming and outgoing 
ships, whose holds were stored with rich cargoes 
of household goods, furniture, and glass, intermixed 
with merchandise. Much of the valuable fur- 
niture is still to be found in the houses of to-day. 

The story of those stirring times reads like a bit 
of romance. The tide still ebbs and flows at Derby 
Street, lapping the piers much as it did a century 
ago, when ships four tiers deep lay tied up at the 
now deserted wharves. The crews were boys, 
many of them, sons of the merchants, who, from 
sailing before the mast, rose rapidly to positions 
of importance, becoming captains of their ships 
at an age when the lads of to-day are just leaving 

Like a dream seems the life of long ago. No 
more, save in imagination, do we see the jolly 
sailor lads with sea legs on, bowling along Derby 
Street, bound for Kit's Dancing Hall, there to 
indulge themselves in merry dance or quench their 
thirst at the flowing bowl. The Old Inn or Or- 
dinary has long since passed away, as has the 



lumbering stage and jolly drivers, who snapped 
their whips and cracked their jokes around a 
cheerful, open fire while waiting for the incoming 
ships. The large, square homes of yesterday are 
now degenerated into tenement houses. 

Three of the most prominent merchants of that 
day were William Grey, Joseph Peabody, and 
Elias Hasket Derby. They owned the greater 
number of the ships that sailed to foreign ports, 
and their names are household words. On the 
wharves still stand their old counting-houses, now 
put to other uses. 

With the decline of commerce and the decrease 
of shipping, the tide of building turned inland. 
Large, imposing houses were erected in other 
parts of the town. Elias Hasket Derby chose as 
a site for his new house what is now known as 
Derby Square. The estate was a large one, ter- 
raced to the water's edge. The house was of wood, 
three stories in height, and costing eighty thousand 
dollars. Much of Samuel Mclntire's best wood 
work was used here. Not many months after its 
completion, the owner died, and his entire estate 
was sold. The house was torn down, much of the 
timber being used in other houses that were in the 
process of building. Captain Cook was at that 



time erecting for his daughter, who married Henry 
K. Oliver, a stately home on Federal Street. Into 
this were introduced some of the best specimens of 
the wood carving. This mansion was a type that 
came into prominence at the close of the Revolu- 
tionary War, a large, square house, three stories 
in height, showing in exterior finish many of 
Mclntire's best designs. The gate-posts on either 
side of the little picket gate were especially carved 
for the old Derby Mansion, as were the classic 
columns that support the porch. Not only outside 
the house but inside as well, one comes across 
Mclntire's wonderful carving. Step over the 
threshold, enter the spacious hallway, that like 
most constructed in that day extends entirely 
through the house and opens on to an old-fashioned 
garden beyond. Here the door frames and stair- 
way show the master's handiwork. The broad 
landing is lighted by a window especially designed. 
Large, square rooms open on either side of the 
hall, the one at the right showing scenic wall- 
paper made in Paris and hung in 1808, A feature 
of this room is a hob-grate, one of the first ever 
placed in any Salem home. 

The old merchants knew well how to build for 
comfort and beauty. One of their old houses, 


Plate 11. — Doorway, Oliver House, Salem, Mass. Built in i8o2. 









still standing on Essex Street, Salem, was built in 
1750 by one Joseph Sprague, a merchant. It is 
a rambling, spacious aflfalr, three stories in height 
at the rear and two at the front. The grounds 
were extensive, leading to the water's edge. 

Major Sprague was a man of standing, Interested 
in military affairs. It was he that commanded the 
first uniformed company of light infantry. Or- 
ganized on April 22, 1776, they applied to the 
General Court to make them independent of the 
militia but not of the regiment. In those days 
their uniform was much more striking than at 
present. Green coats with gold trimming were 
worn, also ruffled shirts, the ruffles falling over 
the hands, under dresses of white, black gaiters, 
and black hats of beaver ornamented with ostrich 
plumes. This company soon disbanded. 

The ancestral home of Major Sprague has never 
been out of the family. It was built by him for 
his bride. Lifting the ponderous knocker, one 
enters the open door, passing Into a broad hallway 
with a colonial staircase showing fine, hand-carved 
balusters. Opening out of this are large, square 
rooms, filled with rich, old Chippendale. Much of 
this was brought over in the major's ships. Huge 
open fireplaces are found In every room. One of 



them is surrounded by, tiles, picturing ^sop's 

Closets innumerable, such as would delight the 
heart of a twentieth-century housekeeper, are 
everywhere. There are large ones and small 
ones. Sometimes, concealed behind panels, were 
secret closets, but the most important of all, as 
well as the most historical, has disappeared. This 
was used in Revolutionary times to shelter one 
of the servants, a deserter from the Continental 
Army, who was discovered and shot. 

Major Sprague had a comely daughter Sarah, 
who was a reigning belle of that day. Her beauty 
attracted the attention of one William Stearns, a 
Harvard collegian, who lived in the Craigie House 
at Cambridge, afterwards the home of Longfellow. 
Every Saturday night he swam the unbridged 
Mystic River and walked to Salem to see her. 
They were married in 1776 and lived in the town. 
He was one of the largest stockholders in the turn- 
pike road built between Salem and Boston, and 
the story runs that he declared after it was finished 
he would be able to stand on the steps of his Salem 
home and look directly into the Boston market. 
A son of the fair Sarah married Thresea St. 
Agnan from Trinidad. She was an intimate of 



Josephine Tascher de La Pageree, afterwards the 
consort of Napoleon. A beautiful gold-banded 
tortoise-shell comb is still kept in the family, a 
present from Josephine to Agnes. 

Many are the interesting historical houses to be 
found in this city, each of which has a story hidden 
away under its roof. One of these standing next 
to the Old Witch House was owned originally by a 
Captain Davenport. It is mentioned as early as 
1662. Later, the captain removed to Boston to 
take charge of the fortification at Castle Island 
and on July 15, 1665, was killed "By a solemn 
stroke of thunder." The estate was then con- 
veyed to one Jonathan Corwan, afterwards called 
Curwin, a man of prominence in the witchcraft 
trial through being appointed one of the judges. 

Later on his grandson Samuel, an exceedingly 
interesting man with a most irascible disposition, 
lived in the same mansion. Graduated from 
Harvard in 1735, he became a merchant, after- 
wards taking part in the Pepperrell Expedition 
against Louisburg as captain and rose to the rank 
of "Judge of Admiralty." Espousing the cause 
of the Loyalists, he was forced to leave for Eng- 
land. Returning in 1784, he found his estate in 
a very bad condition, most of his valuable library 



having been sold. For many years afterwards 
he was a prominent gentleman in the life of the 
city and was often seen walking the streets, wear- 
ing his English wig, clothed in a long cloak of red 
cloth, his fingers covered with rings, and using a 
gold-headed cane as he walked. 

There is no purer type of colonial house in the 
city by the sea, than the Cabot House, built by one 
Joseph Cabot in 1748 and which was for thirty 
years the residence of William Crowninshield 
Endicott, who served under President Cleveland 
as Secretary of War. 

Near Derby Street stands the house made famous 
by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Here, in May, 1840, 
he called to see his cousin *'The Duchess," Miss 
Susan Ingersoll, on which occasion she told him the 
story of the house, and the name struck him so 
forcibly that he is said to have repeated it again 
and again as if to impress it on his memory. From 
this incident we have the romance of The House of 
the Seven Gables. 




The visitor to Salem has no difficulty in finding 
the House of the Seven Gables, for any one can 
direct him there, and he is waylaid by boys who 
wish to guide him to it. 

His way lies through what was once the court 
end of the town. This quarter, long since deserted 
by fashion — its fine old houses are now turned 
into tenements — still retains enough of its an- 
cient state to arouse the visitor's interest. So 
his mind is in a most receptive mood when a final 
corner takes him into Turner Street, and he descries 
at its very end the rear of the ancient mansion, 
embowered by trees, the long sweep of its lean-to 
crowned by a cluster of chimneys. 

The House of the Seven Gables is most pleas- 
antly situated, overlooking Salem harbor, with a 
view across the water and of Marblehead in the 
distance. The house faces the south. Its east 
end borders on Turner Street, crowding down so 



close to the narrow sidewalk that the picturesque 
sign over the shop door swings just over the heads 
of the passers-by. At the back of the house the 
lean-to already mentioned slopes down to the yard, 
while to the west the land extends beyond the 
garden to the next street. 

The steeply sloping roof of the ancient mansion, 
its sharp, pointed gables, its gray, weather-beaten 
clapboards, the faded red of its brick chimneys, 
all attract the visitor. Romance speaks to him 
from the tiny casements and, dreaming that he 
shall find Miss Hepzibah herself behind the coun- 
ter, he opens the shop door and hurriedly enters. 
The bell over the door jangles his welcome. 

It would be hard to find a tinier place than that 
little shop. And how full it is of everything : of 
toys, of candies, of baskets and rag mats and 
antiques and bits of embroidery and, best of all, 
quaint Jimcrows, the gingerbread men so thor- 
oughly appreciated by Miss Hepzibah's young 

The present presiding genius of the little shop 
stands behind a high, narrow counter surmounted 
by a very old, quaint, glass show-case. She is a 
lady of far more charm and tact than was poor 
Miss Hepzibah, with much of interest to tell about 


Plate IV. — Hallway, Cabot Low House, 1748 ; Fireplace, 
Oliver House. 







her wares, and answers with great patience ques> 
tions about the house and the families who lived 
in it. 

The house was built in 1669 by John Turner, a 
Salem merchant, and was successively owned by 
his son and grandson, both John Turners. The 
third John Turner sold the house in 1782 to Cap- 
tain Samuel Ingersoll. Hawthorne's connection 
with the house begins with the Ingersolls, who were 
his kinsfolk. Mrs. Ingersoll was a Hawthorne and 
a cousin of Hawthorne's father. 

Her daughter Susannah was eighteen years 
older than Hawthorne, although of the same gen- 
eration. She inherited the estate while still a 
young woman and was at first fond of ^society, 
but after an unfortunate love affair she became 
a recluse. She spent a long life in gloomy retire- 
ment in the ancient mansion with no companion 
except her under-witted maid. Her young cousin, 
Nathaniel Hawthorne, was one of the few men 
allowed to cross her jealously guarded threshold. 

Miss Ingersoll's old age was cheered by an 
adopted son, a boy of mysterious birth, supposed by 
some to be the child of her servant. Whoever he 
was, Miss Ingersoll was devoted to him. She 
gave him a fine education and started him in life 



as a clergyman. He was known at first as Horace 
Conelly but later took the name of Ingersoll. 
Miss Ingersoll left him her entire fortune, even her 
family homestead, the House of the Seven Gables. 
But unfortunately he proved to be a man of very 
weak character. He dissipated the fortune, and 
in 1879 the house was sold for his debts. 

In the next few years the house changed owners 
many times, until in 1883 it came into the pos- 
session of the Upton family, who occupied it for 
twenty-five years. In 1908 it was bought for the 
use of the settlement to which it gives its name. 

In 1909 the house was repaired and fitted up 
for settlement work, and while it was under repair, 
many of the original features, or traces of them, 
were discovered. During its two hundred and 
forty years of existence some of its gables and its 
lean-to had been taken off, the overhang closed in, 
and the secret staircase taken down. A careful 
restoration was made of all these missing features, 
a matter of great interest to architects and anti- 
quarians and even to the casual visitor. 

Leaving the little shop, the visitor enters di- 
rectly the old kitchen. This is a small room 
sheathed with pine boards put on perpendicularly, 
after the fashion of the earliest times, so as to form 



a simple pattern. This special pattern is peculiar 
to the House of the Seven Gables. 

An immense fireplace occupies nearly the whole 
of one side of the room. It is filled with old- 
fashioned cooking utensils and illustrates the 
evolution which has taken place along this line. 
The pots and kettles are swung from a long iron 
bar placed well up in the chimney. (The crane 
with which we are all familiar is simply a later 
development of this primitive bar.) There is a 
brick oven built into the fireplace, also a Dutch 
oven, which is a pot with a rim around the cover 
to hold the hot coals ; and, the last step in evolu- 
tion before the cook-stove, we find the tin kitchen 
standing in its place before the andirons. 

The most precious of all the furnishings of the 
fireplace is an old-fashioned toaster from which 
Hawthorne has had many a slice of toast. Close 
to the fireplace is a panelled oak chest as old as, if 
not older, than the house. Flanking the chest is 
the top of a highboy, which once belonged to 
Miss Ingersoll and may have been bought of the 
Turners with the house. As Miss Ingersoll was 
a conservative person, it was probably not until 
after her day that the highboy was divided, and 
the top part set on the floor with feet of its own. 



Opposite the highboy is an old-fashioned kitchen 
dresser, part of which was found in the house, and 
the rest designed to match. Its shelves now 
contain samples of crockery and old salt glaze, with 
specimens of Bennington and tortoise-shell ware. 
If the visitor is up on such matters, he will have 
noticed that certain articles in the room are of 
much later date than others. He is then told that 
the idea in furnishing the house is to make it look 
as an old, conservative Salem house would have 
looked in 1840, the period of the story. That is 
to say, there is practically no furniture later than 
1840, and most of the pieces are much earlier — 
survivors, so to speak, of the many periods through 
which the house has passed. The later and more 
elegant pieces of furniture (generally speaking, 
mahogany of about 1800) are to be found in the 
parlor and dining-room, while the earlier pieces 
of walnut, cherry, pine, and oak have been rele- 
gated to the kitchen and attic ; the same is to be 
said of the china — Lowestoft and lustre sup- 
planting the earlier wares in the parlor and dining- 

With the determination to note this evolution 
in household furnishing, the visitor continues on 
his tour of the house. He leaves the kitchen by a 


Coijyright, mill, l>y L\ O. Emmertoii. 

Copyright, I9I1I, l..\ ( . il. Kinnicrtuii. 

Plate VI. — Hallway, House of the Seven Gables; Hepzibah's 
Shop, House of the Seven Gables. 

Cpyrigllt. 191(1. I>v C. Knlniertuii. 

Cul>.vright, I'.IHI, liy I . O. J,l.lllK-rl..n. 

Plate VII. — Dining Room, House of the Seven Gables; 
Parlor, House of the Se\ en Gables. 


dark, narrow passage. A door at its end admits 
him to a large, sunny, low-ceiled room, which has 
always been used as a combination dining and 
sitting-room. The Turners called this room "the 
hall," a term the early settlers brought with them 
from England. The Ingersolls called it "the 
keeping room." To the settlement residents to- 
day, it is simply the dining-room. It is certainly 
most attractive with its rare, old, white painted 
panelling and old-fashioned furniture. The side- 
board, dining-table, and secretary are fine old 
pieces of mahogany. The chairs are of the Wind- 
sor pattern. On the wall are pictures of clipper 
ships and foreign ports and one portrait of a rather 
grim old gentleman. Under the portrait is the 
dinner-wagon and a red lacquer tray, once the 
property of Miss Ingersoll. 

In the novel this room is called "the parlor of 
more moderate size" in contrast to the grand re- 
ception room. And here, more than anywhere 
else, the scene of the story is laid. For this was 
the room where Colonel Pyncheon was discovered 
dead by his little grandson, and here after many 
years that grandson received Matthew Maule the 
carpenter and sent for his daughter Alice to join 
them. And this was the room that Miss Hep^ 



zibah Pyncheon used as the living-room, and where 
she and her brother Clifford and her little cousin 
Phoebe ate their meals under their ancestor's 
frowning portrait. Here it was that Judge Pyn- 
cheon came and bullied Hepzibah and sent her to 
find her brother. The story tells how poor Hep- 
zibah, sadly against her will, goes over the house 
looking for Clifford. But she does not find him in 
his room, and when she hurries back to the living- 
room, Clifford himself comes out of it and points 
to the judge, who is sitting dead in his chair. 
Hawthorne does not explain in the novel how Clif- 
ford left his room and got down to the living-room, 
but the house itself offers an explanation. 

Beside the fireplace in the living-room is a round- 
topped door opening into a brick-lined closet. 
Entering the closet the guide opens a secret door, 
revealing a mysterious staircase by which the 
visitor mounts apparently right into the heart of 
the huge central chimney. The staircase is very 
steep and narrow and makes many a turn. Fi- 
nally, the door at the top opens, and the visitor 
steps out into Clifford's room. The door closes 
with a snap behind him. The visitor looks round 
but sees only the pine sheathing with the pattern 
peculiar to the House of the Seven Gables. 



In response to the question: "Why was the 
secret staircase built ?" the guide confesses that 
no one knows. There have been many surmises. 
Some have thought it was a refuge from the In- 
dians. Others have fancied it was for purposes of 
smuggling. The most probable explanation seems 
to be that it was a temporary hiding-place in case 
of a recurrence of the witchcraft delusion. About 
1889 Mr. Upton began to take down the great 
central chimney and then discovered the secret 
staircase, which was rebuilt in 1909 from his de- 
scription. It looks so old that the visitor can 
hardly believe that it is only a very exact reproduc- 
tion of the original. 

Clifford's room is only a small attic chamber 
with a mahogany bed and bureau and an attractive 
set of painted chairs, which belonged in the House 
of the Seven Gables but were given away at the 
time the house was sold for Horace Ingersoll's 
debts. All the furniture was scattered at that 
time, but since then many pieces have found their 
way back, either by gift or purchase. 

The visitor leaves Clifford's room and makes 
his way into the open attic, for he came up two 
stories by the secret staircase and is now under the 
sharply pointed roof and surrounded by trunks, 



chests, and bandboxes. This is a good place to 
understand the structure of the house. The main 
building had at first just two gables in front and 
one at each end ; then a wing was built on in 
front, covering one of the gables, which was largely 
cut away. This wing had three gables, and the 
porch, which was built in the angle of the wing and 
the main house, was roofed by another gable. 
An old plan of the house shows a wing built on to 
the lean-to in the rear, which was probably roofed 
by another gable ; so the house in the time of the 
first two John Turners probably had eight gables. 
It seems likely that the third John Turner took off 
the porch gable, which must certainly have been 
very troublesome, as its position made it a pocket 
for the ice and snow. If we omit the porch gable, 
assuming that it was gone long before the Inger- 
solls bought the house, we find that the rest cor- 
respond very closely to Hawthorne's description of 
them as they are mentioned in different parts of 
the novel. 

The stump of the cut-off gable is a great object 
of interest in the attic, as is also a piece of the old 
front door, which is studded with nails after the 
fashion of the early colonial days. 

One flight below the attic is the great chamber, 






Phoebe's room in the story. This splendid, great, 
sunny room has fine panelling, dating from about 
1720, and good examples of early furniture. To 
give an idea of how the room looked when first 
built the guide moves aside the Queen Anne mirror 
and opens a small door behind it, cut in the wall 
of the room. This reveals one of the great sup- 
porting posts, which is roughly carved in mediaeval 
manner. This post, with its companion beams and 
posts, once stood out in the room, but since the 
panelling was put in, that is nearly two hundred 
years ago, it has been hidden from sight. This 
silent witness indicates the great age of the house, 
which has outlived so many styles and fashions. 
Another flight below is the parlor or "grand recep- 
tion room," as it was called. 

In the story it is described as unfurnished — 
an empty room that Miss Hepzibah was too poor 
to heat, where Clifford took his exercise on rainy 
days. Into this room the hero Holgrave drew 
little Phoebe, that she might not enter the living- 
room and have the shock of discovering Judge 
Pyncheon sitting there dead. One forgets about 
the story in admiring the very happy color scheme 
of this finely proportioned room. The wall-paper 
is gray, a reproduction of some wall-paper found 



in the house. The graceful little classical groups 
indicate that it was designed in the early part of 
the last century. Against the gray wall-paper 
and fine white painted panelling, the red curtains 
at the three windows are seen in pleasant contrast. 
They are a wonderfully soft yet brilliant red, with 
a beautiful brocaded design. A set of Sheraton 
chairs covered with black figured hair-cloth give 
character to the room, and the warm Turkey rug 
on the floor helps to carry out the color scheme. 

The fireplace in this room is of especial interest. 
It is large, but the guide opens a wood closet and 
shows that the original fireplace was very much 
larger. At the right of the fireplace opens a 
quaintly panelled door, disclosing a buffet with a 
carved shell overhead and shelves crowded with 
delicate and beautiful old china, while on the floor 
of the closet an array of ginger jars reminds one 
of the Salem ships that brought home such good 
things from the East. One is also reminded of the 
East by the lacquered work-box, chess-board, and 
teapoys. In front of a slant-top desk stands 
Hawthorne's favorite chair. It looks so comfort- 
able that we can readily believe that he would 
select It when making a call on his cousin. 

Her portrait looks down on the chair. Hers is 



an unusual face, striking though hardly beautiful. 
Was she the original of Miss Hepzibah ? Her 
lonely life in this old, gabled house, the wealth of 
aifection she bestowed on a weak and selfish man, 
certainly suggest that Hawthorne had his cousin 
in mind when he drew this character. 

After a lingering Inspection of the parlor, which 
looks so homelike because, like the dining-room, 
it is really lived in by the settlement residents, 
the visitor passes out the front door to study the 
exterior of the house and enjoy the old-fashioned 

The first object of Interest is the overhanging 
second story. The "overhang," as it is called, 
was closed in, probably for a century or more, 
simply because overhangs had gone out of fashion. 
It was accidentally discovered when the house 
was repaired by the carpenter, who was examining 
the soundness of the sills. Some of the old clap- 
boards can still be seen, and a small piece of the 
drops which originally ornamented the corner posts. 
The present drops are reproductions, except a bit 
of the old drops that were left to nail to. 

At the end of the garden, which is bright with 
old-fashioned flowers, stands the counting-house. 
This is a small building found on the estate in use 



as a wood-shed. Its age and previous history 
are not known, but as it is of the same size and 
shape as the old counting-house mentioned in the 
inventories of the Turner family, it has been fur- 
nished to represent it. There is the master's 
desk, a wonderful affair with many secret drawers, 
the clerk's desk, and armchairs, models of ships, 
a barometer, a telescope, etc. 

Adjoining the counting-house is a grape arbor, 
where the visitor can refresh himself with a cup of 
tea, and while he sits there enjoy a view of the har- 
bor across the garden. On his left is the House 
of the Seven Gables, and on his right is another 
old house used for the settlement clubs and classes. 
It is the Hathaway house, dating from 1683, but 
that is another story. 













It Is doubtful if any other historic home in New 
England can boast, as does the Pickering house 
situated in Salem, Massachusetts, of being in the 
direct line of a family for nine generations. 

This family originated in Yorkshire, England. 
John Pickering, the founder of the Salem branch, 
was born in old England in 1614; he came to the 
colonies and lived in Ipswich from 1634 to 1636. 
In the early part of 1636 he came to Salem, and 
on December 7, 1636, John Pickering, carpenter, 
was granted to be an inhabitant of that city. 

Long years ago, when this city was in its youth 
and sparsely settled, large estates, many of them 
original grants, were founded. It was then that 
this now famous house was erected. It was 
commenced in 1650 and finished in 165 1 by one 
John Pickering, the emigrant ancestor of the 
present owner of the old mansion, who became 
a considerable landowner, purchasing his estate 



in different lots until his property extended from 
Chestnut Street to the Mill Pond, then known as 
South River. 

The twenty-acre lot known as the home lot, on 
which he built the historic mansion, was originally 
a part of the governor's field, once owned by Gov- 
ernor John Endicott. It was conveyed by him 
to Emmanuel Downing, who sold it, so tradition 
tells, to one John Pickering to pay for the com- 
mencement dinner of Sir George Downing, who 
was graduated in the first class at Harvard. The 
original deed is still in the possession of the 

The house was built In the Elizabethan style of 
architecture and resembled the famous Peacock 
Inn in Rouseley, England. It was constructed 
of white oak, which grew In a swamp on the estate. 
The exterior is practically unchanged ; and the 
interior shows low, beamed ceilings and small 
windows. The entrance door opens into a low 
hall, from which the stairs ascend to the second 
story floor. This has been lengthened within the 
last few years by taking out one of the chimneys. 
As in many old houses, large rooms open on either 
side. At the right is the library, which has been 
enlarged by opening up an alcoved recess. This 



was formerly a chamber, and is used to-day to 
accommodate several bookcases filled with rare old 
books, many of which are in manuscript. The 
colonial fireplace, with its scriptural tiles, is a 
feature of this room, where is shown a wonderful 
old English ball table that was brought over by 
the emigrant ancestor. The chairs, many of them, 
were made by Theophilus Pickering, whose old 
desk where he wrote many of his sermons stands 
at one side of the fireplace. Rare books and in- 
teresting mementoes are found on every side. 

Opposite is a large drawing-room filled with 
Chippendale and colonial furniture, and showing 
Colonel Timothy Pickering's picture on the wall. 
At the rear of this room is a dining-room which, 
as does the rest of the house, contains more fine 

Autograph letters fill many books, some of them 
received by Colonel Timothy Pickering from Presi- 
dent Washington. Rare old glass, china, and 
silver speak of bygone days. 

Up-stairs are interesting, rare old four-posters, 
still showing their quaint hangings ; and one notes 
the old chimney that occupies such a large space 
in the house. Inside one of the closets is the old 
army chest marked with Pickering's initials and 



showing his rank. It was used by him when quar- 
termaster in the Revolutionary War. 

The builder of the house married Elizabeth, 
whose surname is not known. He resided upon 
the estate until his death, which occurred in 1657; 
the property descended to his son John, who in- 
creased his land-ownings by the purchase of the 
eastern or Anthrum lot from Edmund Batter. 

The second John married Alice Flint, a most 
estimable lady, in 1657. He served as a lieutenant 
in the Indian War, in 1675, and particularly dis- 
tinguished himself in the memorable fight of 
Bloody Brook at Deerfield, Massachusetts. He 
died in 1694 and was succeeded by another John, 
third in line, who was a farmer, frugal and indus- 
trious, and who held many positions of trust in the 
community. He married Sarah Burrill, of an 
influential Lynn family. There were two sons, 
Timothy and Theophilus. The latter was gradu- 
ated from Harvard and was called to Chebacco 
parish, first as assistant to Reverend John Wise, 
and afterwards as minister. There is in the Pick- 
ering house a manuscript book on physics bound 
in leather and illustrated by him. There is also 
a set of ten chairs made by his hand in 1724. 

His brother Timothy, who inherited the estate, 


Plate XII. — Hallway, Pickeriiii^ House. 

Plate XIII. — Dining Room, Pickering House ; Alcove, 
Pickering House. 


was deacon of the Tabernacle Church in Salem 
at his father's death. He was the father of nine 
children. During his lifetime he added three more 
rooms on the northern side, raising the roof, which 
sloped almost to the ground after the fashion of 
buildings of that period. At the time of these im- 
provements, the eastern part of the house was one 
hundred years old and the western part eighty. 
When the weather boards were ripped off, the sills 
of white oak were so sound that it was decided they 
would last longer than new ones. One of the 
peaks was removed at this time because of leaks 
but was replaced in 1840 by John, the son of 
Colonel Pickering. 

When Timothy inherited the estate, he was the 
first to break the line of Johns. He is described 
as a gentleman of great piety, firmness of char- 
acter, and decided convictions. He died at the 
age of seventy-five and left the estate to his son 
John, the fifth of the line, who was a bachelor and 
lived in the old home with his sister, Mrs. Gooll, 
as housekeeper. His occupation was agricultural, 
but he held several public positions. He repre- 
sented the town in the General Court for many 
years, and was town treasurer in 1782. His 
brother Timothy, who was Clerk of Register of 



Deeds, entered the Continental Army, and at that 
time John took his place with the intention of 
returning the office to him on his return from the 
war, but he became so accustomed to the work 
that he kept the position until 1806, when he was 
compelled to resign through the infirmities of age. 
It is related of him that at one time he was sup- 
posedly fatally ill, and the question of his suc- 
cessor in office coming up, it was proposed to can- 
vass for a candidate. This so enraged John that 
he recovered from his Illness. He was one of the 
original members of the Academy of Arts and 
Sciences and was noted for his honesty, industry, 
and the careful management of his affairs. At his 
death, the ancestral estate passed to his nephew 
John (the fifth), the only break in the transmission 
of the property from father to son. 

John's father. Colonel Timothy, the brother of 
John (fourth), although never owning the estate, 
spent his early boyhood upon It, and much of its 
fame comes from his connection with it. Colonel 
Timothy was born In the old house July 17, 1745. 
Upon his graduation from college, he entered the 
office of the Register of Deeds as clerk and was 
appointed head of this department a few years 
later. In 1768, he was admitted to the Bar, and 



became the leader and champion of the patriots 
of Essex County; he wrote the famous address 
from the citizens of Salem to General Gage, rela- 
tive to the Boston Port Bill. He held the office 
of Judge of the Court of Common Pleas for Essex 
County, being sole Judge of the Maritime Court 
of the Middle District. This was an office in- 
volving great responsibility and decisions con- 
cerning large amounts of property, as that was the 
day of privateers. His military service began 
in 1766, when he was commissioned lieutenant of 
the Fourth Military Company of Salem. 

Three years later he was promoted to the rank 
of captain and by his interest and careful training 
raised appreciably the standard of discipline. He 
was commissioned by the Royal Government 
colonel of the First Regiment, Essex County 
Militia. He led the troops who marched out to 
oppose the entry of Leslie and his Redcoats into 
Salem on February 26, 1775, when the famous 
colloquy on North Bridge took place, and the 
munitions of war concealed in the town were saved 
to the colonists. 

In the fall of 1776, he joined Washington in New 
Jersey with a regiment of seven hundred men, 
and the next year he was made Adjutant-general 



of the Continental Army, commencing his service 
July 17, 1777. When Congress decided to change 
the personnel of the Continental Board of War 
from members of Congress to three men not con- 
gressmen, Colonel Pickering was chosen to serve 
on the Board, whose powers and duties were many 
and important. He was made Quartermaster- 
general of the Army, also, holding this position 
until its abolishment, July 25, 1785. He was a 
member of the committee which wrote the fare- 
well address delivered to Washington, November 
I5> 1783. With the close of the war, Colonel 
Pickering withdrew from public life to devote 
himself to agriculture. He settled in Philadelphia, 
but his private life was of short duration, as his 
services were needed for the adjustment of 
claims made by Wyoming settlers. He had a 
thrilling experience in the West, being captured 
by a band of masked men who carried him off and 
subjected him to horrible torture. 

Colonel Pickering was a most charming host and 
though apparently stern and forbidding, delightful 
in the midst of his family. He retained his in- 
herited fondness for agriculture, at seventy-five 
still filling the position of President of the Agricul- 
tural Societies of Essex County and bearing off the 


Plate XIW — Living Room, Pickering House; Drawing 
Room, Pickering House. 










first prize for plowing, in competition with the 
farmers of the vicinity. It was his habit to pre- 
serve letters and documents of every description, 
the most important of which were published after 
his death in 1829, and which, owing to his prom- 
inence in national aifairs, are very interesting 

Colonel Pickering is an example of one of the 
best types of a New Englander of his time : a 
brave, patriotic soldier, a talented writer, an 
impartial, able, and energetic public official, a 
leader of the Federal party, occupying four Cab- 
inet positions, serving his country whenever he 
was needed, but content to return to his simple 
life when the need for him in public life was over. 

At the death of Colonel Pickering's brother, 
John, the ancestral estate descended to the colonel's 
son, John (fifth). He inherited his father's public 
spirit and served in the General Court, three times 
as representative from Essex and twice from Nor- 
folk and Suffolk counties. He was Secretary of 
the Legation at Lisbon and later under Rufus King 
in London, and finally became United States 
Minister to England. He was a member of many 
learned societies in Europe, received several di- 
plomas, and brought home a fine library collected 



on the continent. He was a profound scholar, 
a writer in law, and especially interested in phi- 
lology, understanding twenty-two different lan- 

The house is now in the possession of John Pick- 
ering, the eighth of the line, whose son John will 
succeed his father. The ancient house, in all the 
dignity of old age, is the central feature of the lot, 
a picturesque historic mansion, considered one of 
the most important landmarks of Salem, Massa- 



"the lindens" 

Nowhere In American history is there a colonial 
home more closely linked with England than is 
"The Lindens," for here it was that Governor 
Gage, during his sojourn in the colonies, made his 
official home. This house, situated at Danvers, 
Massachusetts, was erected in or about 1770. 
The exact year is not definitely known, as at that 
early period the records were scanty, but about this 
time the mansion, which is now standing, was 
built by one Robert Hooper, a rich Marblehead 
merchant, who was thought to be a Tory at heart. 

When Governor Gage, sent over by order of the 
king from England to convene the General Court, 
came to this country as a stranger, he naturally 
demanded a residence suited for his station. This 
was in 1774, probably four years after the com- 
pletion of the building. 

Robert Hooper offered this house to the governor 
as a summer home. Being retired, as it was sev- 



era! miles from Salem where the court convened, 
and also surrounded by extensive grounds, it 
proved most suitable for the general's residence, 
a magnificent home in keeping with what he de- 

Those were troublous times. The edict had 
gone forth forbidding the passage of many meas- 
ures that would have given to the colonies more 
freedom than the mother country thought best. 
It was even feared that if these measures were 
adopted, the colonies would eventually be allowed 
to do practically as they chose. 

In considering this subject, it must be remem- 
bered that the colonies were supposed by England 
to have very rich possessions, and it behooved her 
to keep a strict hand on her unruly subjects who 
were planning for separation from the mother land. 

General Gage was sent over to look into the 
condition of affairs and to see what could be done 
to bring about harmony. It was the middle of 
July when the troop ships sailed into the harbor 
of Boston, and landed General Gage, who later 
made his way through Salem streets to his head- 
quarters in the Hooper house. During his resi- 
dence, this mansion was the scene of many a 
merrymaking, and within its walls was often heard 



Plate XVII. — Hallway, "The Lindens." 


the clanking of his officers' swords as the brill- 
iantly uniformed men, members of His Majesty's 
army, visited the house and were entertained by 
their commander. 

While "The Lindens" was the headquarters of 
General Gage, or Governor Gage, as he was gen- 
erally known, he had his office at the Page house 
in Danvers, where the tea drinking episode took 
place on the roof. He formed a brilliant spectacle, 
with his officers accompanying him, as he rode 
over the highway every day in the fulfilment of 
his official duties. 

At that time the country was not thickly settled, 
and the houses were so few that from his windows 
he could obtain an uninterrupted view of Salem 
harbor. One reason for his taking the Page house 
was because he could watch the vessels sailing in 
and out and thus guard himself against capture 
by surprise. 

Not long afterwards British troops were brought 
into Salem harbor, disembarking at the point where 
Derby Wharf now is. There were two companies 
of the Sixty-fourth Royal Infantry who, with their 
brilliant red uniforms, made a striking spectacle 
as they marched through the streets to the govern- 
or's house, where they encamped on the plain 



opposite the headquarters. Later on these troops 
were followed by the Fifty-ninth Regiment, who 
were quartered at Fort Pickering on Winter 
Island. Messengers were constantly passing from 
one body of troops to the other, carrying messages 
from the commander. 

} But little imagination was required to realize 
that the defender was not popular, and that the 
people had very little respect for him. They had 
never forgotten the Boston Massacre, neither did 
they fail to remember that they had come to this 
country for freedom of thought. There was a 
growing hostility among them, though they were 
under discipline and generally kept within bounds. 
Still, enough restlessness was manifested for the 
camp to be watchful against surprise. They knew 
only too well that the independent citizens would 
let no occasion pass for a taunt or a scornful word. 
During their encampment many practical jokes 
were played on the troops, one of which was 
particularly amusing. At the drum call to arms 
one morning, a thoroughly disguised man dashed 
in among them on horseback and in a very loud 
voice cried: "Hurry to Boston, the devil is to 
pay!" The troops were on the alert, however, 
and paid no attention to his cry. 



Standing near "The Lindens" in those days was 
a large oak tree, to which culprits were tied and 
flogged. This was known as the whipping-post. 
Singularly enough' a part of it was used for the 
sternpost of the frigate Essex. 

In late September the British soldiers were with- 
drawn, and Hooper was given back his summer 
home. Still visible on the door is a large hole 
made by a musket ball which is said to have been 
fired to warn the Tory owner. A more probable 
legend, however, is that the gate-posts were orna- 
mented with large balls showing lead ornaments 
attached, and that one day a party of patriots who 
were going by to join the army spied the precious 
metal and helped themselves to it to melt for 
bullets. This aroused the wrath of the owner, 
who came to the door and remonstrated in such a 
violent way that one of the men lifted his rifle and 
fired close by his head, the bullet entering the door. 

The estate on which this house stands was orig- 
inally a part of the Governor Endicott grant. It 
must be remembered that this grant covered 
one thousand acres. 

At the death of the governor in 1665, this land 
which was owned by him came into controversy, 
and the courts were called upon to settle definitely 



the boundary line. A part of this grant fell into 
the hands of one Doctor Amos Putnam, familiarly 
known the country around as the good old Doctor 
Amos on account of his gentle manner and his 
extreme kindness to the poor. When he came into 
possession and how long he held it can never be 
definitely known, as there is no record of any deed 
passing until 1753, when we learn that the doctor 
and his good wife Hannah transferred the property 
to Doctor Robert Hooper of Marblehead, or as 
much of it as that on which the house stands, the 
exact number of feet not being recorded. This 
was in consideration of £186 135. ^.d. It is defi- 
nitely known that the Marblehead merchant 
added to his original purchase from the fact that 
in 1755, two years later, more land was bought. 

Robert Hooper, who erected this colonial man- 
sion, though a man of lowly birth, was a wealthy 
merchant who lived in Marblehead. He pos- 
sessed great prudence and sagacity, so that he rose 
to be a man of power and for a period of years 
practically monopolized the fishing industry of 
Marblehead. During his life there, he entertained 
in a most lavish way, rivalling Colonel Jeremiah 
Lee, not only in grandeur of equipage but in liber- 
ality as well. His name of "King" was given to 


Plate XVIII. — Dining Room, " The Lindens " ; Chamber, 
" The Lindens." 

Plate XIX. — Drawing Room, " The Lindens " ; Library, 
" The Lindens." 


him by the fishermen on account of his integrity 
and his personal honesty in dealing with them. 
His ships sailed to almost every part of the civilized 
world, and his name became well known in every 

King Hooper erected a beautiful residence in 
Marblehead, one of the few elaborate mansions 
that still remain. It was a common sight in those 
days to see his magnificent equipages, drawn often 
by four prancing steeds, come dashing through 
Salem on his way to Danvers. 

The first record of the Danvers house we find is 
in 1774. Who the builders were will always 
remain a mystery, but one fact can never be chal- 
lenged : that the work was done honestly and well, 
and that Mclntire must have been connected with 
its wood-carving as is shown from the fine examples 
which are to be found in the interior. 

The house, as it now stands, is recognized as 
one of the best examples of provincial architecture 
in Massachusetts, ranking in the same class with 
the famous John Hancock house in Boston, which 
was later torn down. 

The mansion, surrounded at the front by a stone 
wall, stands far back from the street. The entrance 
is by a wide, circular driveway enclosing a central 



grass plot of carefully shaven lawn, the decorative 
feature then as to-day being the magnificent elms 
that shaded the home. It received its name from 
the fact that lindens lined either side of the entrance 
drive. The grounds are extensive, mowing fields 
and grass land interspersed with fine old trees 
showing at the rear of the house. At the rear, 
also, is a fine old-fashioned garden carefully pre- 
served, where appear the same kinds of flowers 
that blossomed in our grandmothers' day. 

The building itself is a stern, dignified, two-story 
house with a gambrel roof. This is surrounded 
with a curved balustrade similar to that found in 
the Page house, as well as in many others of that 
period. At the front are four dormer windows, 
but the central feature is the high porch extending 
to the dentation in the roof and showing a pointed 
cap above. The Corinthian column supporting 
it on either side is an example of fine hand-carving, 
while the white trim corresponds picturesquely 
with the gray of the exterior. The house is pan- 
elled on the outside and painted to represent a 
stone house, although in reality it is wood. The 
entrance door is unique, lacking the distinguishing 
porch that is found on so many colonial homes. It 
is framed with white instead. 



Just how long the estate was owned by Robert 
Hooper will never be definitely known. We find 
that later Judge Benager Collins lived there, thus 
giving the name of "Collins House" to the man- 
sion. Subsequently Francis Peabody, one of 
Salem's most noted citizens, occupied this resi- 
dence as his summer home until his death, when 
it passed into the hands of his son. During the 
elder Mr. Peabody's residence, the place was 
restored to its former dignity. The grounds were 
materially improved, and the garden was changed 
back to its original design. 

Within the walls of this house have been enter- 
tained some of the most notable men in the country. 
Mr. Peabody was a lavish entertainer, and many 
important events occurred during the time of his 
residence. One of the most frequent visitors at 
the house was the late J. Pierpont Morgan. 

Dignified and imposing as is the outside of the 
house, the interior is even more impressive. Enter- 
ing the sturdy door that swings back on its long 
strap hinges, one finds himself in a wide hall extend- 
ing entirely through the house and opening on to 
the old-fashioned garden in the rear. This remark- 
able hall shows some of the most wonderful wood- 
carvings found in any colonial home. This is 



particularly noticeable in the balustrades, prob- 
ably Mclntire's work. The newel post and the 
balustrade are of mahogany, the former most 
elaborately carved. The walls are hung above 
the panelling with a rich old-time paper, depicting 
different scenes in the story of the adventures of 

The furniture throughout the house is of either 
the colonial type or massive old carved English 
pieces brought over centuries ago, most of them 
heirlooms that have descended in the family for 
many generations. On the extreme right are the 
stairs, rising by low treads ; on the wide landing 
is a window flanked by pilasters on either side. 
On this same landing stands a rare colonial chair 
associated with the witchcraft times. The upper 
hall, practically a replica of the lower one, is wide 
and ample in its dimensions. 

Opening from the hallway at the right is the 
library, finished in mahogany and showing an 
Oriental paper of the seventeenth century design. 
The mantel is one of Mclntire's best, the central 
feature being a basket of flowers with festooned 
ornamentations on either side. Here, as in every 
room of the house, we find massive pieces of Eng- 
lish oak, richly carved cabinets and chairs. 



The drawing-room, also finished in mahogany, 
is perhaps the most elegant room in the house, 
with its fireplace of supporting pilasters rich in 
elaborate hand-carving. There is a dignity and 
charm that surrounds every room in this house, 
telling of the days when honest labor gave thor- 
ough workmanship. All through this mansion 
the woodwork is particularly impressive in its 
richness and careful finish of hand-carving. 

The dining-room, a large room in the rear of 
the house, is in close harmony with the other 
apartments, the most notable feature here being 
the strap hinges of wrought brass. These show 
most unusual ornamentations, which differ from 
those on the entrance floor. Here the trim is 
painted white and gives a most effective back- 
ground to the brass hinge. On every door is a 
ponderous brass lock of elaborate design. Few 
houses, even among the most famous found in 
this vicinity, can boast of more wonderful furniture 
and such a wealth of old-time wall-paper. 

No two chambers are alike. Many of the fire- 
places are particularly fine, as Mclntire has taken 
special pains to give good samples of his work. 
The fireplace motive all through the house seem- 
ingly runs to baskets of flowers. 



In the days of commercial prosperity, the Pea- 
body family was among the most prominent of 
the Salem merchants. On the walls of "The 
Lindens" are many paintings of ships that were at 
one time in the service of the Peabodys. 

The house to-day is owned by the son of the late 
Francis Peabody, who has kept it in perfect pres- 
ervation and intact as in his father's day. Little 
wonder that romance clings about the place, lead- 
ing one to tread reverently through the different 
rooms, where, during the colonial period, both 
American and English history were made. 


Plate XX. — Chambers in " The Lindens." 







There was built in Peabody, Massachusetts, 
in the early part of the nineteenth century, one of 
the most magnificent colonial homes of the period. 
It still stands, a large, pretentious, two-storied 
house, known as "Oak Hill" and the summer 
residence of Mrs. Jacob C. Rogers. The house 
itself is in the center of well laid out grounds, 
being placed far back from the road and showing 
at the front a wide stretch of lawn interspersed 
with trees, one of which, a purple beech, is among 
the tallest and largest in New England. 

The avenue which starts between stone gate- 
posts shows a wide gravelled road lined on either 
side by magnificent trees, many of which were 
planted at the time of the house building. At the 
left, standing by itself, is a wonderful oak, notable 
for its symmetry and its height. It is from this 
tree that the house derives its name "Oak Hill." 
The grounds at the rear of the house show a garden 



that covers three acres, the garden proper being 
geometrically laid out with a fountain in the center 
and a sun-dial at the end. Back of it all are 
arches of woodbine that make a most effective 
setting for the floral display, while catalpa trees, 
weeping mulberry, and other varieties are found 
scattered through the estate. 

At the left one comes upon the most wonderful 
feature of the place. It is a large lotus pond, 
where during the season are found many varieties 
of the Egyptian lotus, there being sometimes one 
hundred of these marvellous blossoms open at 
once. Just back of the house is a lily pond, which 
is laid out in a decorative manner. It shows many 
varieties, including the Cape Cod lily, the blue, 
the pink, and the white. 

The grounds cover an area of two hundred 
acres, which are laid out at the front and sides in 
lawns resembling those of England. The rear 
gives a background of flowers, while beyond sweep 
to the boundary line extensive grain fields and 
vegetable gardens. Entrance to the grounds is 
through carved gateways, the boundary being a 
well built wall of stone. 

In the early days these grounds belonged to 
Nathaniel West, who was a very noted merchant 



and the owner of the ship Minerva, the first of the 
Salem vessels that circumnavigated the globe. 
Nathan West married Elizabeth Derby, one of 
the daughters of Elias Hasket Derby, familiarly 
known as King Derby and who was one of the 
three merchant princes that led the commerce 
in Salem. The house, which at the time of its 
building was one of the most notable ever erected, 
was designed by a celebrated English architect 
and is a type of the Adams period. Originally it 
was much larger than it is now, for at the death 
of Mrs. West two portions of the house were de- 
tached and moved away to meet present-day 
requirements. The parts taken were so large that 
one of them to-day forms a private residence on 
Chestnut Street in Salem. 

The Rogers house is colonial in design. It is 
two stories in height and was built at the time 
when wood-carving had reached the highest degree 
of excellence in the historic city by the sea, and 
when skilled workmen had been attracted there 
from every part of the land. Doubtless many of 
them were employed by Samuel Mclntire on this 
house which contains some of his most wonderful 
work. These men, with the native ingenuity and 
wonderful skill in the handling of tools, took great 



pains to execute in wood what many of the master 
architects across the sea were doing in stone, more 
particularly as regards decorative molding. In 
studying the work on this house, one cannot too 
carefully take into consideration the tools which 
these men had to use, and the precision with which 
the fine scale detail is carefully thought out, mak- 
ing these workmen compare favorably with those 
of to-day. 

The house where so much fine woodwork is shown 
is painted white, with green blinds, and is an excep- 
tionally good example of what the century-old 
architecture in and around Salem stands for, pos- 
sessing character, dignity, and grace such as is 
seldom found. This is particularly exemplified 
in the front doorway, the porch being perfectly 
balanced, its well proportioned fanlights and side- 
lights giving it rare dignity and refinement. Orna- 
mentation in the balcony shows Mclntire's work 
in baskets of flowers picturesquely carved, while 
the steps are flanked with marble vases filled with 
geraniums, the bright blossoms giving just the right 
touch of color to bring out the white of the house. 
The flooring of the porch is tiled, and the hallway 
is most imposing, the stairway being lined with 
pictures of the old masters, including Van Dykes, 


Plate XXII. — Doorway, Rogers House. 

Plate XXIII. — Parlor, Rogers House ; Drawing Room, 
Roeers House. 


and Salvator Rosas, Oliver Cromwell proroguing 
the Long Parliament, Diogenes with his lantern 
hunting for an honest man, and many others. 
The dado here is most unusual, being fabric 
painted red, while the hand-painted landscape 
decorations show a section of the classic Zuber 

The front entrance displays on the inside a well 
planned elliptical arch over the door, with a frieze 
motif of reeded sections between applied rosettes 
tied into the cornice, the charming pattern in these 
sashes being brought about by iron bent against 
the glass. In most houses of this period, as in this, 
the elliptical arch of the fanlight is echoed else- 
where in the house. 

The staircase cannot fail to attract notice, with 
its twisted newel post and balusters and the 
molded mahogany railing. The box stairs with 
panelled ends show decorative brackets. It is 
interesting to note the twisted portion of the three 
balusters on each stair, each differing, although 
the tops and bottoms are alike. The newel, hand- 
carved and turned, is a specially good specimen 
of its type, and with the balusters, which are also 
hand-carved and turned, represent a direct devel- 
opment of the shipbuilding industry in their like- 



ness to the rope moldings of the ship cabins, so 
much used in those days. 

In this hallway the door caps are placed above 
the lintel, showing no supporting pilasters. They 
represent diflFerent designs of Mclntire, in some 
cases showing baskets, in some flowers, and in 
others garlands. 

The entire house Is finished in white pine, a 
wood that is rather rare to-day but which shows 
lasting qualities. This is particularly noticeable 
in the drawing-room, which lies at the right of the 
hallway. Over the fireplace is a wonderful old 
painting representing Saturday Night. This is 
almost priceless in value, and shows a European 
peasant scene where little children are gathered 
around their grandmother for a good night parting. 

The woodwork of this room is painted a soft 
brown, the carving on the mantelpiece showing 
Neptune with sheaves of wheat, and the whole is 
supported by Ionic columns. The center of the 
room at the rear is arched, showing wonderful 
carving, molded pilasters giving an effect that is 
fine and distinctive. Here we find, as through all 
the house, the marked individuality of the Adams 

Inside this arch is a background of rich, dark 



red leather, on which are fastened wonderful old 
plates, many of them brought over by the ances- 
tors of the owner, and without duplicates in this 
country. These plates are arranged to form a most 
artistic archway. Most of the prints on the wall 
are from Sir Joshua Reynolds' paintings. Upon 
the chimneypieces, not only in this room but also 
in the several others, it would seem as if Mclntire 
had put his best work. They appear to stand out 
with exceptional grace and dignity, with charm of 
line and proportion. Here we find applied work 
of the most delicate nature and hand-carving that 
is exquisite in detail, adorning not only the mold- 
ings of cornice or frieze, but re-echoed in the pilas- 
ters of the over-mantel. The architrave of the 
mantelboard proper and its frieze, the capitals of 
the colonnettes, the edge of the shelf, and the 
molding that surrounds the panel over the chimney- 
breast, are masterpieces in bas-relief. The archi- 
tectural treatment in this room convinces one of 
the great possibilities that lie in the white wood 
finish and how appropriate it is as a background 
for the rare pieces of old furniture that were used 
in our forefathers' day. 

The living-room on the opposite side of the hall 
furnishes a most satisfactory tone for mahogany 



furniture in its white wood finish, there being a 
somber richness in the combination of the mahog- 
any and white that is most harmonious. For 
instances of that, we have only to go back to our 
great-grandfathers' time, for a white finish was a 
popular fad in colonial days. 

Over the mantel in this room is " Sunday Morn- 
ing," a choice picture that is worthy of its setting. 
The casings of doorways which are often elabo- 
rated by the addition of a beautiful cornice and 
frieze, are further examples of Mclntire's wonder- 
ful skill. Sometimes the cornice includes wonder- 
ful hand-carved molding showing between the 
dentiles fine spears which are supported by pilas- 
ters on each side. There are dainty grapevines 
and superbly modelled fruit baskets, while the 
door-cap frieze often shows dainty festoons and 
straight hanging garlands, with rosettes between. 
In the pilasters we find carved eagles and fruit- 
filled urns. 

While most of these decorations are carved in 
wood, some of them are made in French putty 
and applied to the surface of the wood with glue. 
This idea is being carried out to-day by our lead- 
ing decorators. 

The morning-room is at the rear of the living- 



room, a large, handsome apartment opening on 
to the wide veranda, which is a feature of one side 
and approached by broad steps. The dining-room 
leads off the morning-room and is finished in Eng- 
lish oak. The entire house, more especially in 
its interior decoration, is considered by architects 
all over the country to be one of the finest examples 
of colonial architecture that was built during the 
period of Salem's prosperity. 

The furniture follows also the same period. 
Rarely in any private home does one find such a 
gathering of rare pieces of the three masters : 
Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Chippendale. Most 
of these pieces, in fact practically all, are heir- 
looms which have descended directly from genera- 
tion to generation, for this family has the distinc- 
tion of being one of the oldest connected with 
Salem's early history. 

It is fitting that Mclntire should have put his 
best work into a house like this, where one finds 
no plain spaces, no wide panels without decoration, 
and no simple pilasters, for there is a dignity and 
a charm both in exterior and interior bespeak- 
ing not only wealth but good taste. 

While the house does not contain as much old- 
time paper as do many of the residences of that 



day, yet the pieces that are shown are exceptional 
and comprise subjects such as one can seldom 
find. It is refreshing to find such a house as this, 
where great taste has been shown in the selection 
of furnishings, and where there is so much har- 
mony in surroundings. 



I— I 



Plate XXV. — Porch, Lee Alansion. 



Of the many noted colonial houses found in 
New England, one of the most distinguished is the 
Colonel Jeremiah Lee house situated on Washing- 
ton Street, in the picturesque old town of Marble- 
head, Massachusetts. The quaintness of Marble- 
head, situated on a rocky peninsula, is world 
renowned ; and its name heads the list of patriotic 
towns in New England, for from its rugged shores 
went forth a larger majority of soldiers than from 
any other place of its size in our country. 

The celebrated Lee mansion, erected in 1768, 
is of the purest colonial type, and was the most 
costly residence ever built in this seaport town. 
Many traditions relate that the timber and the 
finish were brought over in one of the colonel's 
trading ships as ballast. However that may be, 
the material used was pine, such as was known in 
the old days as pumpkin pine. The trees of that 
species sometimes allow for boards four feet in 



width, and the fact that boards of this width are 
found in the Lee mansion is claimed by many to 
refute the idea of English wood, as the pines in the 
old country did not produce boards of such width 
when Jeremiah Lee commenced to build. 

Standing back from the street behind a granite 
curb and iron paling is the old mansion, its dimen- 
sions being sixty-four feet by forty-six feet, and 
containing fifteen large rooms. The exterior was 
built of brick, over which were placed huge, 
bevelled, wooden clapboards, more than two feet 
in width, and one and a half in height. From 
a distance the observer might mistake the gray 
of the exterior for stone, as the block style of 
construction was employed, the wooden cube 
being painted and sanded to resemble dark gray 

This gray wooden building, with its two wide- 
girthed chimneys pushing up from the red roof, 
has the same appearance as in the days when the 
first housewarming took place, in 1768. The hand- 
some porch and the gray cupola are distinguishing 
features, and from the former in the olden days the 
colonel swept the seas with his spy-glass to watch 
for incoming ships just as sea captains do to-day. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century 



Jeremiah Lee came to this country and settled 
at Manchester-by-the-Sea. The little that can 
be learned of him shows him to have been a keen 
trader, who took care to make his savings increase 
his income. In 1760 we find him living in Marble- 
head, prominent in town affairs and serving on 
important committees, being one of the Board of 
Fire-wards in the first fire department of the town. 
He was also one of the building committee that 
had charge of the construction of the powder house 
erected about that time. 

Originally Lee was a Loyalist, but he later be- 
came a patriot and was foremost in all the move- 
ments that kindled the spirit of independence in the 
colonists. Before the struggle had fairly com- 
menced, his career was cut short by an early death ; 
otherwise he would have been as well known to 
posterity as was his intimate friend and fellow- 
townsman, Elbridge Gerry. As a member of the 
Province Committee of Safety and Supplies, which 
held a meeting on April 18, 1775, at Weatherby's 
Black Horse Tavern, situated on the highway 
between Concord and Lexington, he was among 
the number who decided to spend the night at 
the tavern rather than to go on to Lexington. 
The advance guard of the British troops was 



sighted In the early morning, and the colonel 
and his friends hastily dressed and escaped by a 
rear door, the colonel thereby contracting a cold 
from which he died. 

During Lee's life in Marblehead he entertained 
royally In this mansion, which was erected at a 
cost of ten thousand pounds. Within a few steps 
of this mansion there was also a cooking-house, 
the same building being used to shelter the car- 
riages of the family. Originally the large brick 
building now used for the store was made his 
slaves' quarters. Not long ago was found Inside 
the house a small brass button, bearing the coat 
of arms of the Lee family, which was doubtless 
once worn on the livery of one of his slaves. 

In the flagging that leads to the side door has 
lately been uncovered a central stone bearing the 
date of the erection of the house. 

As the ponderous front door swings open, one 
enters a grandly spaced hall, wainscoted waist 
high In solid mahogany. At the right is a deeply 
recessed window, and a door on either side of the 
hall leads Into rooms beyond. Above the casing 
of these entrances runs the classic egg and tongue 
molding. The feature of the hallway Is the wall- 
paper. This represents scenes of Grecian ruins, 


Plate XXVI. — Two Views of the Hallway, Lee Mansion. 

fe-l . *^ ,^ ^ fJ * '^'^H 


Ju^rvr--' 't-ifw 

Plate XXVII. — Wallpapers, Lee Mansion. 


such as shattered columns, temples, landscapes, 
coats of mail, each set in a separate panel, hand- 
somely carved. It is finished in soft tones of 
gray, beautifully blended, doubtless the highest 
development of early decorative art. 

At the rear of the hall, ascends the grand stair- 
case, with boxed stairs spacious enough for 
several people to walk abreast. It is quite likely 
that the stair rail was made on the other side of 
the water. The finely turned balusters of regu- 
larly varying style, together with the exquisitely 
wrought carvings and delicate panels running along 
the side of the staircase, are expressive of the taste 
and skill which went into its building. A great, 
arched window, which floods the hall with light, 
is inserted at the landing, and is flanked by several 
pilasters, which seem to support the high ceiling 
encircled with heavily dentated corners, and 
heighten the effect of grandeur. From this lofty 
window the broad hall is lighted. 

In this hallway at the time of Lafayette's visit 
to the house, the banquet tables were set. The 
ever-loyal ladies of Marblehead sent for the enter- 
tainment some of their choicest belongings : table- 
cloths of wonderful damask brought from over 
the seas, rare old silver, and choice English glass. 



At the right of the hallway is the drawing-room 
in white and gray. Two Corinthian pilasters flank 
the fireplace, rising to the molding and following the 
line of the wall. The whole chimneyside of this 
room was panelled in huge white slabs. This was 
the living-room of the house, and here were doubt- 
less entertained the members of the Secret Council. 

On the opposite side of the hallway is the dining- 
room, which was known as the banquet hall. 
Here Washington was entertained, also Monroe 
and Jackson. This room shows a huge open fire- 
place and a richly carved mantel. So carefully 
have the chimneypieces been wrought, that there 
are no two alike in the large house. 

The tiles in many of the fireplaces are fascinat- 
ing. We find some quaint and humorous, while 
others are sentimental. There is the wide-skirted 
shepherdess climbing the stile with the aid of the 
swain, a sailor taking leave of his lass, a ship lying 
in the offing, nymphs and shepherdesses piping and 
playing. These tiles of blue and pale pink afford 
a study of interesting pictures to the lover of the 
antique. ; 

In the former days scriptural texts and marble 
tablets were placed over the mantel in one of the 
chambers. One of these, a representation of 



Susannah and the Elders, was purchased from the 
family and Is now found in the Independence Hall 
in Philadelphia. 

Great care as to detail has been exercised in the 
finish of every room. Notwithstanding the talk 
of secret stairways and mysterious trap-doors, 
there is nothing at all uncanny about the place, 
which was built for comfort and good living. 

It is easy to be carried back in imagination to 
the days when Colonel Lee and Mistress Martha, 
noted for their open-handed hospitality, f^ dwelt 
in this mansion. Its great rooms echoed with 
the laughter of the gallants of the day, who in 
short clothes, silver buckles, and laces, made love 
to the stately dames in trailing gowns and pow- 
dered hair and danced in the state chamber over 
the parlor, used then as a dance hall. 

In this house the venerable Marquis de Lafay- 
ette accepted the hospitality of the Lees, when 
he came to America in 1824 at the invitation of 
Congress, accompanied by his son, George Wash- 
ington Lafayette. It was during this visit that 
he danced a minuet in the great southwest room. 
An old letter, discovered recently by Miss Dixie, 
of Marblehead, discloses the fact that her mother 
led the dance with the gallant Frenchman. 



This room is panelled in wood of dark finish, 
with exquisite designs over the fireplace, where 
a shelf on consoles shows over it an ornate panel 
made from a single board and exquisitely carved. 
On the opposite side of the room is the large 
apartment which was originally used as a chamber, 
probably by Colonel Lee. Here the pictures all 
relate to the sea, — one of them depicting Neptune 
and another a fish. 

The Lee mansion, like many of the Marblehead 
houses, stands with one foot on the land and the 
other almost on the water, bespeaking the mari- 
time side of the community. Within the house, 
the arrangement of rooms and passages suggests 
the troublous times in the years just before the 
Revolution. A secret stairway connects two of 
the upper rooms, while the front hall shows a 
trap-door which led to the cellar. This doubtless 
gave rise to stories of intrigue but probably was 
concerned only with the contents of the cellar. 
A small cupboard door, leading apparently into 
a clothes-press, gave access to a narrow secret 
stair leading to a bedchamber above. A smaller 
panel, sounding hollow, was discovered to have a 
pair of hinges. On being opened, this revealed 
an iron safe with double doors, buried in the 


Plate XXVIIL — Wood Carving, Lee Mansion. 

Plate XXIX. — Banquet Hall, Lee Mansion; Fireplace, 
Lee Mansion. 


brick work of the chimney. Doubtless It was the 
private safe of Colonel Lee, for according to tra- 
dition there was always plenty of money in the 

In the early days an effort was once made to 
surprise the bank of which Lee was an official. 
A party of men came into town after the closing 
hour, and meeting the genial colonel, explained 
that they had come to collect money on a note. 
Without a moment's hesitation, they were escorted 
to the Lee mansion, where the entire sum, which 
was an unusually large one, was paid by him in 
gold. This story has been vouched for by one of 
the earliest inhabitants of the historic town, and 
the finding of the safe discounts the idea of the 
secret closet being used for any other purpose. 
In the upper floor are plainly found marks of 
sliding panels to mask a retreat by secret floors 
and false walls to reach the garret. 

The kitchen fireplace has been a recent discovery. 
When the house was restored, the fireplace was a 
practical but shallow affair, not showing the gener- 
ous depths found in many houses of that day. 
In the process of repairs it was discovered that this 
was a false fireplace, back of which two feet more 
were found, and behind them the deep oven that 

[67 1 


had not been used for cooking since Massachusetts 
Bay was a royal colony. This kitchen fireplace 
is believed to be in what was used as the family 
dining-room, for doubtless the cooking was done 
in the slave quarters, much as in the Southern 
homes, the food being brought into the house 
through a covered passageway. 

In the early days, a little after the building of 
the house, there was a great demand for lead to 
make bullets for the Continental army. It has 
been discovered that in the upper casements of 
the house, in rooms which were rarely occupied, 
the lead weights are wanting. This leads one to 
believe that the old tradition of their being melted 
during the time of the Revolution for ammuni- 
tion may be true. 

In the attic is a mark which shows the house 
to have been built by English architects. This is 
an inside dormer window used in those days by 
architects in the motherland for ventilation. This 
idea is rarely if ever carried out in a house where 
the architects or master builders are of this 

On the death of Colonel Lee, the house was 
occupied by his widow, who continued to extend 
hospitality to the townspeople and visitors from 



other places, much as during her husband's life- 
time. At her death the estate passed into the 
hands of her son, and afterwards was owned and 
occupied by Judge Samuel Sewall. 
1 A grand old landmark this colonial mansion 
makes, and even now the old sea captains climb 
to the gray cupola to scan the horizon for incom- 
ing ships, much as they did in the days of long 




Closely linked with romance and history Is 
the Ladd-Gilman house, one of the notable colo- 
nial houses at Exeter, New Hampshire. This 
mansion was not always of Its present dimensions. 
When built by Nathaniel Ladd In 1721 it was of 
brick and about half the size of the present struc- 
ture. It is situated on a large area of land, 
with a frontage on Water Street, on a part of the 
original lot that was purchased of Ollphalet Coffin 
in the year above mentioned. For many years 
this estate was held in the possession of the Ladd 
family, descending from father to son until 1747, 
when It was purchased by Colonel Nathaniel 
Gllman, a leading citizen of the place and a man 
of Influence. Gllman came from a family which 
had been prominent in the town for many years. 

Here in 1752 his son, Colonel Nicholas Gllman, 
then only twenty-one years of age, brought his 
bride, Anne Taylor, a very beautiful young woman 


Plate XXX. — Chamber, Lee Mansion; Four-poster, 
Lee Mansion. 





who had descended from Puritan ancestors and 
who was very popular with the patriots of that 
day. During their residency the house, considered 
at that period one of the best in Exeter, was en- 
larged to its present size, and the exterior was 
entirely covered with wood to correspond with 
the additions. 

Colonel Gllman was distinguished as one of a 
quartet who furnished brains for the Old Granite 
State, being known as the Robert Morris of the 
province and possessing not only Influence but 
wealth and ability. He was a close friend of Gov- 
ernor Wentworth who, with his son, was a fre- 
quent visitor at the house ; so sincere was their 
intimacy that when Colonel Gllman sided with 
the colonists Governor Wentworth declared that 
instead of making a rupture In their friendship, 
if the Rebellion were crushed, he should save his 
friend. This great Intimacy was also shared with 
Count Rumford. 

It was In 1775, several years after the house 
was enlarged, that Gllman was made Treasurer 
and Receiver-general of the State, in which office 
he stayed until his death in 1783. The treasury 
building was a room In his own house. This may 
in a way account for there being two entrance 



doors, one for family guests and the other for busi- 
ness purposes. The house has never been altered, 
with the exception of the introduction of modern 
improvements, since the day that it was enlarged. 
It is a fine, substantial building, two and a half 
stories in height, showing dormer windows and a 
six-foot chimney. The huge fireplaces are still 
kept intact, few if any showing hand-carving. 
The porches are dignified but ample in their lines 
of architecture, and the entire exterior shows an 
unusual type. 

The room nearest the entrance door at the 
extreme left was used as a treasury, for in addition 
to the ofiice of State Treasurer, Colonel Oilman 
held the position of Continental Loan Officer 
of the State, all the money being received here. 
In this same room the Committee of Safety used 
to meet, and it was here that the Battle of Ben- 
nington was discussed and planned. 

Gilman was a great friend of Daniel Webster, 
who never came to Exeter without passing the 
principal part of his time in this house, the bed 
in which he slept being still shown in one of the 
large continental chambers. 

The house was noted for its hospitality, a home 
where many gatherings, both for charity and 



pleasure, were held. The mistress of the house- 
hold was a famous New England housekeeper, 
who possessed the whole art of housekeeping at 
her fingers' end. Beautiful as a young bride, she 
was even more so in after years. Her trim figure 
became rounded out, while her dark eyes and fresh, 
rich color preserved their brightness. Colonel 
Gilman was a striking figure, six feet tall, with an 
erect carriage. He wore until the day of his death 
a ruffled shirt-front and a cue. 

It was during his occupancy that the Declara- 
tion of Independence was passed. The Legisla- 
ture had not adjourned when the message came, 
and the President, who was in waiting, decided 
the documents must be publicly read. The news 
spread like lightning; the farmer eager to hear 
all dropped his scythe in the swath, the mechanic 
rushed from his shop, while the housewife forsook 
her spinning-wheel, all meeting in a general en- 
thusiasm to hear the words that gave them free- 
dom and a country. The document was brought 
into Exeter by a courier, who dashed suddenly 
into the village, bearing in his hand a letter ad- 
dressed to the Convention of New Hampshire and 
signed by no less a personage than John Hancock. 
On, on, he rode, until he reached the Gilman 



house and delivered it into the hands of the host. 
It was read in the village square amid intense 
enthusiasm by his son, John Taylor Oilman, who 
was also destined to play an important part in our 
country's history. 

John Taylor Gllman was then just out of his 
teens. He was a handsome man with magnetic 
power and an idol of the people. No one in the 
whole audience was more thrilled than was the 
father of the reader, who, filled with ardor, paused 
often to crush down the rush of sentiment that 
overmastered speech. Colonel Gilman was dis- 
tinguished as one of those who financed the Revo- 
lution, and his son succeeded him in this service. 

After Colonel Oilman's death, in 1783, the house 
was left to John Taylor Gllman, who inherited his 
father's love for political power. He, like his sire, 
was a most comely man, just entering into man- 
hood when he married Dorothea Folsom, a great- 
granddaughter of the noted Revolutionary hero. 
She was only twenty-one years old when she 
married, being one of the belles of the village and 
a most estimable young lady. For sixty years 
she directed the affairs of her household in a most 
exemplary manner and was the personification of 







Plate XXXIII. — Living Room, Ladd-Gilman House; 
Robert Treat Room, Ladd-Gilman House. 


Directly after their marriage, the young husband, 
then only twenty-two years of age, gathered a 
company together and marched for Cambridge, 
where he was encamped for a short time only. 
Later on he acted as commissary to supply the three 
regiments of the State at Cambridge, for he was 
considered too important a person to be allowed 
to take a place in the field. 

In 1779 he was elected a member of the New 
Hampshire Legislature and was called in 1780 as 
the only delegate to attend the gathering which was 
to take place at Hartford, Connecticut. Those were 
the days when there was no money or credit in the 
treasury, so that he was forced to take the journey 
on horseback. He was absent six weeks, paying his 
own expenses everywhere out of his personal income. 

So popular did he become that he was elected 
to Congress in 1782, being one of the youngest 
and most popular members. Later on he became 
Treasurer of State, succeeding his father in this 
work. He was made Governor of New Hampshire, 
which office he held for fourteen consecutive years 
and later on accepted the nomination for two 
years more. In 18 16 he declined the election, 
giving as an excuse that he preferred to spend his 
remaining days in quietness. 



This Governor Gilman was a portly man, weigh- 
ing two hundred pounds and standing six feet in 
his stockings. He was a dignified old gentleman, 
preserving his vigor to the very end. While the 
latter part of his life was spent in renewing social 
relations with his friends, the memories of the past 
were always with him, and he was never so happy 
as when he recalled the days of Washington, who 
was a personal friend. Strong and original in 
intellect, few men were able to foresee as he did 
the future of his country. 

It is said that the night before his death he was 
brought down-stairs by a faithful old negro retainer 
to spend his last evening with his family. He had 
a clear realization that his time was drawing near, 
and he gave full Instructions to his family concern- 
ing his burial and the manner in which they should 
cherish his memory. He requested particularly 
that no one should wear niournlng for him — 
"Spend upon the living, not the dead," he said. 
After a short time he was reminded that he was get- 
ting very tired, and he left the room remarking : 
" I have no disposition to leave this precious circle. 
I love to be here surrounded by my family and my 
friends." He commended them to God, saying: 
"I am ready to go and I wish you all good night." 



The brothers of this noted man also held posi- 
tions in State affairs and in the militia. His 
brother Nicholas at one time lived in this house. 
He occupied the position of lieutenant, captain, 
adjutant, and adjutant-general in the Revolution, 
being also a member of Congress. He took his 
seat in the United States Senate on March 3, 
1797, and came out in views a solid Federal. 

Governor John Taylor Gilman, who succeeded 
his father. Colonel Nicholas, had eleven children, 
many of whom were married in the State Room 
of this house, which is so closely connected with 
the political events of the Revolution and where 
so many distinguished guests have been enter- 
tained. ' 

The Gllmans were one of the most distinguished 
families In Exeter, coming up from Massachusetts 
to join Reverend John Wheelwright's little colony. 
Their enterprise, energy, and thrift made them 
natural leaders in the community. If there was 
a meeting-house to be erected, there was always 
a Gilman on the committee. Should there be a 
military company to be enlisted, there would 
always be a man of that name In the ranks. When 
the commissioners, seven in number, distributed 
the common lands in I7j9, there were four of this 



family among the band. Little wonder then that 
their name is allied with the principal events of 

The hallway of this home is found to be a small 
and unpretentious one, with a winding flight of 
stairs at one side that leads to the second-story 
floor. At the left of the side entrance is the 
Treasury Room, where, during the lifetime of Gil- 
man, important meetings were held and State 
secrets were often discussed. The furniture from 
this room has long since been gone, but the white 
pine walls with their coat of paint are still as fresh 
as they were the day they were built. The huge 
fireplace without tiles bespeaks plainly the days of 
prosperity. At the right of the hallway is a large, 
square room that was used in the olden times as 
a dining-room. There are no secret closets in 
this house, with the exception of a sliding panel 
in the Grill Room, which when lifted gives access 
to the wine closet below. Beyond that is the old 
kitchen, which Is now used as a dining-room. It 
still shows the old brick oven, where during Gov- 
ernor Gilman's occupancy the baking was done, 
and also the Dutch oven, where the meat was 
roasted in the governor's day. On the mantel 
over the old fireplace are displayed some fine bits 



of old pewter, while the windows of this house 
still retain the small panes. 

The room at the right of the family entrance is 
known as the State Room. It is a dignified room, 
large enough to have held easily the notable 
assemblages that must have met there during his 
occupancy. The fireplace has no mantel, but a 
wide panelling, such as is found only in houses of 
that period. The only ornamentations are the 
elaborate columns that define the fireplace and 
panelling. The room is finished in wood panels. 
The huge beams have been cased in, and the win- 
dows with their wooden shutters remain as they 
were first built. The furnishing is all of the co- 
lonial period, showing slat-back chairs and cane- 
seated ones. A feature of this room is the won- 
derful old mirror, one of the largest ever made and 
so tall that an opening had to be made in the 
ceiling, that it might be set up. It is a room 
typical of the period and shows woodwork that 
has never been replaced. The andirons are painted 
in brilliant colors, showing the Hessian soldiers, — 
a kind that were in use directly after the Revolution. 

The chambers have each an old four-poster, 
while their fireplaces are unlike many of that 
period, being finished in stone instead of wood. 



In the middle chamber Is a fine example of a field 
bed, which was used by Daniel Webster. In this 
room also is a queer little mahogany piece that, 
when the cover is lifted, shows a foot-bath that 
was taken by Governor Gilman to Washington 
during his term of service there. In addition to 
this there is a quaint little trunk of leather, which 
was used by the governor to transport his belong- 
ings to and fro, — not a very elaborate wardrobe if 
it all went into the one trunk. 

The Middle Chamber, as this is familiarly known, 
has also one of the old fireplaces without a mantel. 
Every room in the house shows the wide-beamed 
ceilings that came into use about that period. 

Probably the most interesting room is a small 
one at one side which was used as a prisoner's 
room. Here the windows are very small and were 
formerly barred over. In this room the poor 
debtors were kept until released by their friends. 

In the capacity of Treasurer of State, Colonel 
Gilman had his office in the house, and here he 
affixed his signature to the paper bills of credit 
to which the State and country were obliged to 
resort in order to carry on the war. It was a duty, 
however, that still permitted him to devote part 
of his time to military service, holding the posi- 



tion of colonel of the Fourth Regiment of Militia 
and aiding In the capture of General Burgoyne. 
Within the walls of this mansion were born his 
children, three of whom became conspicuous in 
the history of the State. 

John Taylor Oilman, who succeeded his father, 
held many offices of trust and in 1814, at the alarm 
of Portsmouth, he took personal command of a 
large detachment of militia stationed by his order 
in that vicinity. 

Nicholas Gllman, Jr., who resided in the house 
until the age of twenty-one, became senior Deputy 
Adjutant-general of the Continental army on the 
staff of General Washington and participated in 
all theimportant battles and campaigns in which, 
under Washington, the army engaged. In 1787 
Captain Nicholas Gllman and John Langdon were 
chosen delegates to the Federal Convention of 
States, which assembled at Philadelphia and framed 
and adopted the Constitution, the delegates signing 
in the order of States. The signatures of Langdon 
and Gllman followed immediately after that of 
General Washington, as President of the Conven- 
tion. Gllman was one of the youngest members of 
that body, that combined patriotism, experience, 
and character. 



The third son, Colonel Nathaniel Gilman, suc- 
ceeded his father Colonel Nicholas Gilman, Sr., in 
the treasury department — The Continental Loan 
Office — as early as 1783. From 1818 to 1824 the 
mansion was occupied by Captain Nathaniel Gil- 
man, son of Colonel Nathaniel Gilman and grand- 
son of Colonel Nicholas Gilman, Sr. 

The house itself is in an excellent state of pres- 
ervation. The partially panelled walls, the quaint 
windows with wide sills, the large and cheerful 
fireplaces in which the original dogs still do duty, 
belong distinctively to colonial days. The small, 
high windows fitted with wooden shutters show 
the great thickness of the house wall, and the whole 
surroundings impress one with solidity and comfort. 


Plate XXXIV. — Middle Chamber, Ladd-Gilman House; 
Prison, Ladd-Gilman House. 

















One of the first settlers at Newbury, Massa- 
chusetts, was one Henry Sewall, who came over 
from England in 1634, bringing with him cattle, 
servants, and provisions. He was allotted six 
hundred acres of upland and marsh land at New- 
bury, according to agreement made before he left 
his native country. This land bordered the river 
Parker, near what is now known as Byfield proper, 
a fertile, woodland country with rolling hills and 
rich land. He married Jane Dummer, settling 
later on the grant of land that had been appor- 
tioned to him for the first stock farm in America. 

Near the foot of the hill, at the parting of four 
roads, was a lot of land that he bequeathed to his 
wife, with ten pounds yearly. The grant of land 
later on was divided into several house lots, one of 
which was the home of William Longfellow, the 
emigrant ancestor of the Longfellow family in 
America, who married Anne Sewall. This shows 



the connection through marriage of the prominent 
families who settled in this region. 

Captain Abraham Adams was born in Newbury, 
May 2, 1676. He followed the sea in early life, 
sailing first to the West Indies, and soon rose 
to the command of a vessel, making fourteen trips 
to England, besides many coastwise trading voy- 
ages. In 1703 he married Anne Longfellow. She 
was a niece of Judge Samuel Sewall, and lived 
on the part of the old Sewall grant then known as 
"Highfield," which name was given to the estate 
that Abraham Adams' father gave to him at the 
time of his marriage, although the deed was not 
passed until two years afterwards. Upon this land 
Captain Adams built his mansion, an unpretentious 
house following the lines of that period. It stood 
in the midst of the tract which at that time was 
much larger than it is to-day, although even now 
it is still possible to walk a mile in a straight line 
from the homestead on ancestral ground covered 
with heavy timber and showing broad meadows. 

Stone walls were not then built to define boun- 
daries, and the highway was a mere bridle-path 
running by the door and on between the houses 
of Henry Sewall and William Longfellow to the 
ford over the brook, at that time a considerable 



stream. The captain, who took kindly to farming, 
greatly improved the land, and on the grant are 
still found small apple-trees that grew from those 
set out by him in 1706. The seeds for these trees 
were brought by Captain Adams when he returned 
from one of his voyages. Tradition relates that 
while bringing them from the ship his oxen stopped 
in the ford at Cart Creek, and the captain, in a 
discouraged mood said : " I would rather dump 
the seeds in this cart into the creek than to put 
them in the ground. " He changed his mind, how- 
ever, and became a very successful farmer. | 
After Captain Adams' marriage to Anne Long- 
fellow, he promised to give up his life on the sea 
and devote his time to farming. Whether with 
this he made a mental reservation is not known, 
but in his shipyard half a mile away he afterwards 
built several vessels and engaged in a coasting- 
trade. Unlike the other farmers of the day, the 
products of his farm were carried to New Orleans 
and other ports and bartered for rice and molasses. 
The old shipyard can still be seen, but the vessels 
have long ago disappeared. The narrow river 
winding to the sea shows little space for shipping, 
and even in its most prosperous days it was neces- 
sary to launch the rudely built ships sidewise. 



The old house is still standing. Some of the 
original shingles and clapboards, covering a solid 
wall of home-made bricks, are still in a good state 
of preservation, especially on the west end. The 
innovation of a modern porch has added to rather 
than detracted from the pleasing appearance of 
the house. The diamond paned windows that 
were imported from England have been removed. 
Inside, the smoothly finished beams, the great 
fireplaces with panelled sides, the heavy doors, 
the broad, low steps, the fine woodwork in stair- 
case and mantel, all speak of former pride and 

Many an ancient legend Is related concerning 
this old dwelling. Under the attic eaves is still 
shown a bunk known as Booth's bin, on account 
of an Indian slave by that name who for many 
years slept in it. Many years ago David Adams, 
while on a visit to Derry, New Hampshire, took 
with him a slave who became suddenly ill. No 
regular physician could be secured who was will- 
ing to attend him, so a cow doctor was called. 
He advised a hot bath. As nothing could be 
found large enough for the bath, an old dug- 
out was dragged up from the river, pitched, and 
filled with boiling water, into which the negro 



was unceremoniously thrust but escaped with his 

During a fire that occurred in this house some- 
time during the residence of Abraham Adams, 
this slave wished to aid in putting it out, he 
rushed up over the stairs to cut a hole in the 
roof with a hatchet. The hatchet was dull and 
the roof was high, so he battered it with his head 
until a hole was made. 

Somewhere on the bridle-path that led to the 
house in the early days of its occupancy there lived 
for a time a little band of twenty-five Indians, 
many of whom died there. One beautiful day in 
the early spring Mother Anne sauntered down the 
lane and strolled across the fields, as was her 
custom, to sit down outside the wigwam and chat 
with the old squaw. She was all alone, as Quanto, 
the brave, was absent attending to work around 
the place. Soon the old squaw stirred up the blaze 
of the camp-fire and set the kettle on to boil, mak- 
ing ready for the return of her husband for the 
midday meal. She put in beef and turnips, for 
it was before the days of potatoes. The smell of 
the savory stew was most appetizing, and Mother 
Anne, who had been often urged to partake of the 
Indian hospitality, decided this time to accept. 



Suddenly a slight rustle in the branches caused 
her to turn her head, and there by her side stood 
the brave, Quanto, who had come out silently 
from the shadows. His blankets were cast aside, 
and twined around his arm and shoulder was a 
big black snake which he held by its head. With 
the characteristic grunt of the Indian he saluted 
his guest, then stepping quickly forward, he 
removed the cover of the kettle with his left hand 
and with his right threw the writhing snake into 
the stew. Needless to say. Mother Anne's impor- 
tant household duties called her home before the 
meal was ready. 

When the house was first built, the land was 
covered with forests which were afterwards felled. 
Since then many generations have ploughed and 
sowed the fields which, with incredible toil, were 
wrested from the wilderness. Six ponderous oxen 
and a pair of steers were attached to a massive 
wooden plough, on which rode a man and boy ; the 
stronger of the two held the plough upright. Thus 
were the sods turned and the fields prepared. 

The labor of Mother Anne in those days was as 
arduous as was that of Captain Abraham. At 
the east side of the house, close by the old well, 
stood the leach-tub holding one hundred gallons. 


Plate XXXVI. — Parlor, Adams House; Living Room, 
Adams House. 









Here lye was made to be used in working the flax. 
Soap-making followed the cattle-killing in the 
early spring, for butcher and baker did not come 
near the house at that period. 

From the apple trees cider was made, forty 
barrels being put in for a yearly allowance, for it 
was drunk much as tea and coffee are to-day. The 
Indians naturally craved some of this drink. 
One of them, after being repeatedly refused, came 
with a basket filled with gifts from the woods and 
asked slyly if "Him Captain" would fill it with 
cider in return. So persistent was he that the 
captain told him yes. The Indian answered: 
"Him, Captain, wait a little!" 

Quick as a flash, attaching the basket to the 
rope, he swung it down the well. After several 
dippings it froze, making an excellent receptacle 
in which to carry the cider home. 

Captain Adams was a very prominent man. He 
had two sons, twins, who both were sent through 
Harvard. There was a daughter, Anne. All 
three of these were very religious, for we read that 
the twins established the Lynnfield church and also 
the Old South in Newburyport, while the daughter 
Anne, with her husband, established the First 
Baptist Church in New Hampshire. Jacob, an- 



other son, started the first seminary for girls in 
America, called the Adams Female Seminary, one 
of its teachers being Mary Lyon, the founder of 
Mount Holyoke College. 

Samuel Adams was the same type of man as his 
father and succeeded to the homestead. He had 
five sons, the eldest of whom was blind, and with 
four of these sons he fought through the long war 
of the Revolution. From this old doorway loving 
wives looked anxiously for the return of their hus- 
bands and sons from the wars. 

Singularly enough, although five generations of 
Adams' went to war, and the heads of the families 
wore side-arms, no trace of them is found in the 
household, with the exception of one sword that 
did duty at Bunker Hill. What they did with 
their arms was never known, but if they were 
melted into ploughshares, the work must have been 
done quickly. 

After the death of Abraham, the house was 
left to Samuel, his son, in consideration of one 
pound and the love and aff*ection borne him ; 
after his death it went to Samuel's son. Captain 
Stevens, born in 1760. Captain Stevens, so the 
legend runs, was a very tall man, standing six 
feet four inches in his stockings at the time of his 



enlistment in the Continental army when sixteen 
years of age. Still kept in the house are his spec- 
tacles which were made to order from silver dollars 
which he had saved. His desk still stands in the liv- 
ing-room and was bought with money paid him as 
a soldier. It cost forty dollars even at that period. 

Entrance to the house is through a colonial 
porch that gives into a small hallway. At the left 
is a large, square room that is used as a living 
room. In one corner is the old desk in which is 
the original deed of the house, signed by Samuel 
Sewall and Hannah Sewall. The dwelling is a 
treasure-house of old colonial furniture, many 
of the pieces having been originally in the old 
Longfellow house. One of the most interesting 
of these is a fine example of banister chair, the one 
that was brought by Anne Longfellow across the 
fields to the Adams house when she came there 
a bride. 

On the opposite side of the house is a second 
large, square room, also filled with heirlooms, 
among which is a fine example of an 1800 mirror 
of the picturesque type showing "Dawn." This 
was also brought by the Longfellow bride. The 
fireplace in this house is the original one around 
which the Adams father and son gathered the night 



before the battle of Bunker Hill, to mold bullets 
that would be used on that occasion. 

Back of this room, which is used for a parlor, 
is a dining-room with an old desk secretary, of 
1800, showing the ball and eagle ornamentation. 
Here also is another large old fireplace, for the 
interior of the house has been unchanged since 
it was built by Abraham Adams, in 1676. 

The house has descended in a direct, unbroken 
line, and has been handed down from sire to son 
for the consideration of one dollar. It is one of 
the most charming of country-seats, enriched by- 
history, and retaining still all the atmosphere of 
the old colonial homestead. 




An unusually picturesque location has the 
Spencer-Pierce house at Newbury, Massachusetts, 
which stands at the end of a long, grassy lane, lead- 
ing off from the main road not far above the old 
town church. The house itself is unique and forms 
a fascinating study for architects in its fine state 
of preservation, its beauty enhanced by overhang- 
ing vines. Old houses are like open books, dis- 
closing by their type to what period they belong, 
and it is interesting to find one that stands out so 
distinctly from other houses of long ago as does the 
Spencer-Pierce mansion. At first glance of its 
foreground of open lawn and its background of 
trees, one readily perceives that it was intended 
for a gentleman's residence. It has been falsely 
called a garrison house from the fact that its walls 
are of stone and brick, but a knowledge of the first 
owners and their time shows this to be a fallacy. 
Later it might have been used for some such 
purpose, but if so there is no record. 

[93 1 


Whoever built the house had an eye for the 
beautiful. It stands in the midst of a large farm 
surrounded by grass land and trees, with the ocean 
stretching beyond. In construction it is different 
from others of the period, being shaped like a 

The northern projection, the kitchen end of 
the house, shows a large brick chimney built on 
the outside with a stone foundation. It is so high 
and big that it reaches far above the roof, and 
possibly is the first one of its kind ever shown 
in colonial architecture. The self-evident age of 
both the brick and the plaster, broken here and 
there, leaves no reasonable doubt to the student 
of the antique as to the period of its building. 

On the opposite side is the porch. This is 
familiarly known as the great porch of the house. 
Architects come from all over the country to copy 
the lines of this particular bit of architecture, for 
it is one of the most beautiful specimens in New 
England. Much of its beauty, however, lies in 
the mellow, many-toned coloring of the exterior 
produced by its two hundred years' exposure to 
wind and weather. A settled air of old age sur- 
rounds it, and without doubt it will last as it is for 
centuries. The arches of this mansion are interest- 









Plate XXXIX. — Hallway, Spencer-Pierce House. 


ing, showing bevelled brick and most carefully 
introduced casements, while the wonderful orna- 
mentation has helped to establish the fact that it is 
not in reality a genuine garrison house. 

Much doubt is expressed as to the exact year of 
its building, the erection of the house being gener- 
ally credited to John Spencer, the younger, while 
others assert it is the elder who was the first 
owner and occupant of the house. This leads to 
a confusion of dates, placing the time of building 
anywhere from 1635 to 165 1, at which time it fell 
into the hands of one Daniel Pierce. 

One of the first settlers was John Spencer, the 
reputed builder of the house. He came to this 
country in the Mary and John and settled on the 
banks of the river Parker in 1635, his name show- 
ing on the first page of the proprietors' records, 
where it appears that he was the grantee of the 
houselot which was next the great river. He was a 
man of means and took an important part in the 
formation of the little settlement which was estab- 
lished by his influence. Searching through the 
records of the time, we find his name constantly 
mentioned in the list of proprietors, and the state- 
ment that he built a mill at the falls of Newbury, 
where he had a mill lot of fifty acres, and rose to 



such prominence that the following year he was 
chosen magistrate in Newbury in the General 

In other ways, too, he was a prominent man, 
being very much interested in military affairs. 
In April, 1637, we find him captain of a battalion 
that had been sent out under Captain Stoughton 
against the Pequod Indians. His religious opin- 
ions, however, did not agree with those of the set- 
tlers, and he was discharged from his command 
and returned to England after having been dis- 
armed and condemned, being one of three under 
sentence ; the other two were Richard Dummer 
and Nicholas Eaton, but he was the only one who 
went to England, where he remained until his 
death, which took place about 1647. 

Considering the enormous amount of work that 
went into the building of this house, which was a 
very large one, it is evident that he could not have 
built it before he left for England, as it could not 
possibly have been completed before then. While 
the records are scanty on this point, we have reason 
to believe that even if he commenced it, his nephew, 
who succeeded to the property, must have finished 
it. The brick used in the making of the old porch, 
and the square tile we find in the floor, were both 



in all probability brought over from the motherland. 
History relates that previous to 1680 brickyards 
had been established in Salem, as well as in Med- 
ford, but the bricks found to-day that were made 
at that period show them to be of very inferior 
quality. They were made by order of the Superior 
Court and measured nine inches long, two and a 
half inches thick, and four and a half inches wide. 

In this house the bricks used were much smaller 
and were also very smoothly molded. This leads 
one to believe that they were imported English 
brick, perhaps brought over as ballast in some of 
the ships that came to this country with settlers. 
The walls, however, were composed of a great 
variety of stone, some of which was probably 
brought by boats and rafts down the Merrimac 
River. There were also many that doubtless 
came from a long distance, but these facts are 
difficult to determine because of the scanty infor- 
mation to be obtained. 

Young Spencer, who was the next to own the 
land and who may have begun the construction 
of this house, was a careless, improvident man. 
He soon became involved in pecuniary troubles 
and sold the farm in small lots, eventually getting 
rid of the entire property. His uncle, Daniel 



Pierce, a village blacksmith, bought part of the 
land in 1651 with the proviso that any time within 
the next seven years, if Spencer wished, it could 
be repurchased on the same terms. This trans- 
action was through the old ceremony of "turf 
and twig," the transfer being supplemented by a 
deed. It was a blind transaction, there being 
nothing to ascertain the worth of the place. 
Pierce was a thrifty man, and tradition relates that 
he kept all the money he possessed tied up in an 
old stocking that was hung up in his shop. 

Through Mr. Coffin, the historian of Newbury, 
we learn that the house was not built until 1666 
to 1670, but no matter how carefully we trace the 
records, we find it impossible to determine the 
accuracy of this fact. Nowhere in the Pierce 
family is there a tradition that it was built by any 
of their ancestors, and even the oldest inhabitants 
failed to swerve from their assertions that the 
Spencers were the first occupants of this stone house. 
The only fact that points to its presumable erec- 
tion by a Pierce is that Daniel Pierce, who was a 
member of Governor Carteret's first Council, and 
who with others founded the town of Woodbridge, 
two years later returned to his native place with a 
well-lined purse. We read how he valued his 



estate highly and desired to entail it in his will, 
saying : " It shall never be sold nor any part 
divided." Whatever his intentions were, they 
were never carried out, as is shown later on. 

Pierce supported the cause of the pastor in the 
famous Parker controversy, and died in 1677 at 
the age of sixty-six years. His son Daniel was his 
sole executor, and he was asked to do for his brother 
Joshua's children as he thought best. The will 
also has a singular provision, allowing that his 
wife Anne, according to his marriage agreement, 
should have "twenty pounds a year and all the 
proper necessaries of which she stands in need, and 
during her life to enjoy her former liberties in the 

Daniel Pierce, Jr., or Colonel Daniel Pierce, was 
the next to live in the house. He was most prom- 
inent in military and civil affairs, marrying Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Thomas and Anne Millwood, 
who was only sixteen years of age at the time of 
her marriage. He was considered the most im- 
portant man in town, as is shown by an extract 
from the town records, where is found a statement 
that the minister's wife's pew shall be built close 
to the pulpit stairs and that Daniel Pierce shall 
have the first choice of pews. This was a difficult 



and delicate matter, as the seats were assigned 
according to age, dignity, and deafness. 

"To my son Benjamin" was the estate next 
left. Benjamin received it on August, 1 771, and 
died in May of the following year. Charles, his 
eldest son, became the next owner. He was a 
man prominent in church affairs. We find him a 
firm adherent of Whitfield, taking part in the 
great controversy which eventually divided the 
old town church and led to the establishment of 
the old South Society at the Port. Among the 
most distinguished descendants of the Pierce 
family was the late Franklin Pierce, the fourteenth 
President of the United States, who was said to 
have been a visitor at this historic house. 

It is hard to say whether Nathaniel Tracy, the 
merchant, or his father was the next owner of this 
house. It was sold by Daniel Pierce, who owned 
half of the estate, to Nathaniel Tracy in 1778, 
and by the widow of William Pierce the same year. 
This was at a time when Tracy was possessed of 
great wealth and lived in magnificent style, own- 
ing a large house on State Street in Newburyport 
nearly opposite the Dalton house, and a large 
farm at Medford, as well as the Craigie house in 
Cambridge. Nathaniel Tracy was well known in 


Plate XL. — Dining Room, Spencer-Pierce House ; Living 
Room, Spencer-Pierce House. 




the mercantile profession. He was a dashing 
young man, who loved to change his place of resi- 
dence at his whim. Few men of the period had a 
more brilliant career than did he. At the breaking 
out of the Revolution he was a very young man, 
and with patriotic zeal he fitted out a fleet of pri- 
vateers to prey on British commerce, the first 
privateer ever fitted out in our country being his, 
and sailing in 1775. They were small vessels, 
manned by intrepid men and having but few guns 
which, however, were handled in so masterly a 
manner that many valuable prizes were brought by 
them to both Boston and Newburyport. 

During the next eight years he was the prin- 
cipal owner, according to records, of one hundred 
and ten merchant vessels which had a gross ton- 
nage of fifteen thousand six hundred and sixty tons 
and cargoes valued at $2,733,300. Many of his 
fleet were lost or captured, — so many indeed 
that at the end of the war there were only thirteen 
left. The value of the work they had done in aid- 
ing the government can never be estimated. They 
brought into port quantities of stores and am- 
munition that were designed primarily to supply 
the British army. The records show that during 
this period Tracy's men captured one hundred and 



twenty vessels with twenty-two hundred and 
twenty-five men, and their cargoes were sold for 
^3,950,000. His patriotism is well shown from the 
fact that in addition to these services he loaned the 
government ^167,000. 

Rivalling Tristram Dalton, he is said to have 
had some of the finest horses and coaches in the 
country and to have lived in grandeur and luxury, 
his house being the meeting place for the digni- 
taries of the land. He was also very fond of read- 
ing and had in his possession a large and well 
selected library. With the close of the war, his 
money vanished. His successful ventures met 
with disaster, so that in 1786 he was bankrupt. 
His estates were all given over to his creditors 
with the exception of the Newbury farm, which 
had been secured by his father to his family. Here 
he lived the remainder of his life, pressed by no 
claims for money, and loved and respected by all. 
This was his favorite home, and it was no disap- 
pointment to spend his declining years here, walk- 
ing around his extensive estate and listening to 
the sound of the seas while reviewing the troub- 
lous times of the Revolution. 

In size he was a large man, comely of feature, 
and noted for his wit and humor. He married 



in early life the daughter of Colonel Jeremiah Lee 
of Marblehead, who was a great beauty; during 
her lifetime the house was filled with noted 

Few houses with such numerous changes in 
occupants have had so many noted owners as the 
Spencer-Pierce house, which after the death of Mr. 
Tracy was sold by his wife, through the authority 
of the General Court, to one Offin Boardman for 
^12,800. Captain Boardman was well known, 
particularly in a military way, on account of his 
performing the daring feat of capturing a trans- 
port as it came into Newburyport harbor. It was 
a British ship. Friends, with Captain Bowie com- 
manding, that appeared off the mouth of the har- 
bor, tacking and wearing in such a way as to in- 
dicate that she did not know her bearings. This 
led Captain Boardman, whose house guarded the 
mouth of the river, to suspect that it was a British 
ship bringing ammunition for the troops that were 
stationed in Boston. Calling seventeen men to his 
aid, they manned three whale-boats and rowed 
off to the stranger. When in speaking distance, 
they hailed her to know where bound, rightly sus- 
pecting she bore contraband goods. She replied 
that she hailed from London and was uncertain 



as to her situation, whereupon she was offered a 
pilot. The vessel was boarded by Captain Board- 
man and his valiant crew who carried no arms in 
sight, thus preventing the suspicion of the captain. 
The boldness of the attack won success, and the 
ship was taken into Newburyport, where she was 

For twenty years afterwards the house was 
occupied by the same owner, being sold at auction 
in 1 8 13. It was purchased by one John Pettingell, 
who is said to have used it as a summer residence 
only ; during the time of his occupancy the wooden 
buildings at the back, together with the farm, were 
let to tenants. 

The mansion house has been owned and oc- 
cupied by wealthy families ever since it was built. 
It is considered one of the most picturesque homes 
in New England. Unlike other houses built at 
that period, the walls, which are two feet thick, 
were made of granite interspersed with stone and 
brick, over which a thick overlay of plaster was 
placed, and having arched doorways and windows 
and small niches introduced over the door. The 
wooden additions at the back were built for the 
use of servants. The porch of the house is unique. 
The bricks that form the arch of the door have 



fancy, rounded edges that distinguish them from 
those made in the colony. Hanging vines add to 
the picturesqueness of the house. 

The entrance door is divided like the Dutch 
doors of to-day, showing two sections acting in- 
dependently, the upper part being at one time 
protected by an inner shutter. This was arranged 
so as to hang down from the ceiling, the old hinges 
which are still left plainly attesting to this fact. 
There are also shown to-day marks of the pulley 
through which ran the cords to raise and lower 
the shutter. The old-fashioned door swings back 
on wrought hinges twenty-four inches in length. 
These, as well as the old hardware in the house, 
have been carefully preserved. 

Between the outside porch and the inner one is 
a second set of doors, in between which are hanging 
buckets. These are of leather and were kept in 
the hall of every house for use in case of fire. The 
stairway starts at the right-hand side of the hall, 
which is merely a narrow passageway. It leads by 
two turns to the second-story floor and has a most 
unusual background in the brick work of a large 
chimney. Tradition tells us that the builder of 
these stairs received no ready money for his work 
but, instead, eight acres of land, since it was a 

1 105] 


very common practice at that time to pay for work 
in this way. 

At the right is the old parlor, which is now used 
as the family dining-room. It is a spacious apart- 
ment, nineteen feet square, with walls two feet 
thick, corresponding in depth to all those found in 
the main house. Great oak beams, rough with 
marks of the adze, support the chamber floors. 
These beams, for many years boxed in, have been 
lately revealed. The table in the parlor is of the 
empire period, while the chairs are rough bottomed, 
Windsor, and other types, all colonial, though of 
mixed periods. 

Singularly enough, the house differs from most 
of its kind In that It has two main chimneys, one 
providing fireplaces between the front rooms and 
the other built in the kitchen. During the summer 
months these are still used, but in the winter stoves 
are substituted. 

The Inner kitchen Is now used as a living-room. 
It has been remodelled within the last few years, 
there being no plaster on the wall except that 
which was put directly on the stone. The old fire- 
place Is still seen in this room, although adorned 
with a new mantel. Window-seats have been in- 
troduced, and many Sheraton chairs and Hepple- 



white tables are seen. Indeed, every piece of 
furniture belongs to the same period. 

While the eastern part of the house is the original 
building, the western end shows an attractive 
addition that was built on during Captain Board- 
man's lifetime for the benefit of his wife, who was 
a confirmed invalid. She had believed it was un- 
healthful to live between stone walls and so asked 
that this addition be built. This part shows the 
same finishing as other rooms in the house and is 
furnished like them in colonial style. The central 
feature is a gate-leg table, while a Sheraton chair 
of the Martha Washington type is found here, and 
a Chippendale, together with Dutch chairs having 
rush bottoms, dating back to 1740. 

The chambers show a likeness to the lower 
rooms, and the attic is especially large. In the 
chambers there is little or no hand-carving but 
very good woodwork. 

Long before this house came into its present 
ownership, during the time of the Pierce occupancy 
it was used to stow away a part of the town's 
powder. While this was stored here, one of 
Pierce's slaves, a negro woman, went up-stairs to 
her room and carelessly placed a lighted candle 
near one of the kegs. She was weary from a long 



day's work and fell asleep without any thought 
of serious consequences. While she slept, the 
candle burned lower and lower, finally sputter- 
ing and falling over. A grain of powder that had 
been carelessly spilt on the floor was Ignited. A 
blinding flash, a tremendous report, an unearthly 
yell, and the negress flew out of the window, bed 
and all, and landed safe In the top of an apple-tree 
which is still standing ! 

The old home is a splendid example of the houses 
of that day. It Is In a perfect state of preserva- 
tion, and from its windows one still overlooks 
the river, where In the olden days the ships of the 
Tracys passed to and fro, bearing rich cargoes in 
their holds. 




Richard Dummer, emigrant ancestor of the 
family of that name, came to America in 1632, 
joining the little company who were banded 
together at Massachusetts Bay in 1632. His 
first residence was in Roxbury, but he removed 
afterwards to Boston. While here, he became 
interested in starting a stock farm, in which ven- 
ture he was joined by two other prominent citizens 
named Richard Saltonstall and Henry Sewall, 
the ancestor of the chief justice who bore that 
name. When looking about for a suitable place 
to start their enterprise, they came to Newbury, 
Massachusetts. This was in 1634. Here they 
selected the territory bordering on the river Parker, 
or Great River as it was called at that time. 

It was a most suitable place to carry on this 
enterprise, both on account of the fertility of the 
upland and because of the large quantity of salt 
marsh grass which was considered of special value 



for forage, so they Immediately contracted for the 
importation of a large number of cattle. In May, 
1635, the same day that this territory, known as 
Wessacumcon, was by the General Court of the 
colony allowed to be a plantation under the name 
of Newbury, a committee was appointed to set 
out a farm for Richard Dummer about the falls 
of Newbury, not to exceed five hundred acres, 
that is, provided it be not prejudicial to New- 

On the eighth day of July it was further ordered 
by the General Court that a convenient quantity 
of land be set out within the bounds of Newbury 
for the keeping of the cattle that came over In the 
Dutch ship that year and to belong to the owners 
of said cattle. 

Richard Dummer removed to Newbury In the 
spring or summer of 1635, and other grants of 
land were subsequently made to him. It Is a 
little difficult to determine the precise boundaries, 
on account of the scanty records. A short time 
before his death he executed deeds for his sons 
that showed him to be the owner of most of the 
uplands and marshes bordering on the south side 
of the river Parker, a tract more than three miles 
In length and Including most of the extensive 




marshes, assembling a farm of three hundred and 
thirty acres. Whether he had more land or not is 
uncertain, but it is known that it never exceeded 
five hundred acres. 

Since the early grant this farm has been in the 
family, Richard Dummer making his first home on 
Newbury Neck on the place that was known as 
Mr. Dummer's farm. A very rich and benevolent 
man, he contributed much toward the growth of 
Newbury, being elected one of the assistants of 
the colony in 1635 and re-elected in 1636, taking 
the highest office with the exception of governor 
and deputy-governor. He was an ardent supporter 
of Governor Sir Harry Vane, taking active part in 
the election of 1637 which resulted in Vane's 
defeat. Although he was disarmed, with seventy- 
two others, he was not removed from the colony. 

Richard Dummer was an unusual man. Mani- 
festing no resentment at his treatment, two years 
afterwards, when Winthrop, owing to his impov- 
erishment, called for contributions, Dummer gave 
one hundred pounds, — more than one-fifth of 
that contributed in the colony. Two of his sons, 
Richard and Jeremiah, became very prominent, 
the former living on the farm by the falls and the 
latter becoming a judge. It was this Jeremiah who 



was the father of the governor, William Dummer, 
and also of Jeremiah, Jr., who was graduated from 
Harvard in 1699. 

At this period the names of the students were 
arranged in the catalogue in rank of family, and 
Jeremiah's headed the list. He was also the first 
scholar in his class and was spoken of by President 
Mather as the best scholar ever at the college. 
He was very prominent all his life. Bancroft, 
speaking of him, said: "His writings were the 
fruit of loyal colonial liberties and contained the 
seed of American independence." 

In 1687 his brother William was born in Boston. 
William was not a student, being educated simply 
at the Boston Grammar School. Enlisting in the 
Artillery Company in 1702, he rose to its captaincy. 
England was his residence for several years prior 
to his marriage in 1 714 to Katherine, daughter of 
Joseph Dudley, then governor of the province and 
son of Thomas Dudley, one of the early governors 
of the colony. In 171 6 Governor Dudley refused 
re-appointment, and Colonel Samuel Shute was 
appointed in his place by the Crown, who under 
the Province Charter reserved the right to appoint 
governor, lieutenant-governor, and secretary. 
This was a time of continual conflicts in the colony 



through disagreements in appointments, so that 
the province governors enjoyed little ease. 

After an uneasy administration of six years, 
Governor Shute left in 1723 in disgust, remaining 
in England until the arrival of his successor, 
William Burnett, in 1728. This left Dummer in 
the gubernatorial chair for nearly six years. 

Governor Dummer was placed in a very trying 
position. The Administration made it practically 
impossible for him to render strict and impartial 
judgment and give satisfaction to the people. 
His alliance with Dudley and Shute, however, 
proved no obstacle to his influence with them, for 
Governor Dummer was born in the province, and 
his education, his experience, and his family tradi- 
tions were with the people. It is said of him, too, 
that during the critical period of his adminis- 
tration, his wisdom and impartiality, as well as 
his kind, conciliatory spirit brought about the 
confidence and respect of all who were thrown in 
contact with him. 

The office of lieutenant-governor was his until 
1730, when he was succeeded by Lieutenant- 
governor Tailer. The house in Newbury was only 
a summer estate, for he occupied in winter a brick 
house on School Street in Boston, bounded north- 



erly on Province Street, and being separated from 
the Province House estate by a six-foot passage- 

Governor Dummer was a very religious man, 
attending the Hollis Street Church and present- 
ing it with an imperial folio Bible in two volumes, 
richly bound in rich crimson Levant morocco, 
splendidly gilt on the edges and elaborately tooled 
by the bookbinders. It was presented on condition 
that it should be read as a part of the Divine ser- 
vice, and at the present day retains its former 
richness of color and gilding. The paper is rich 
and smooth and creamy as though just made, 
while the size and clearness of type are a comfort 
to any minister's eyes. After Dummer's death 
he was buried in the Granary Burying Ground on 
Tremont Street, Boston. 

Governor Dummer was a man of great firmness, 
strict integrity, and warm benevolence. In civil 
and administrative affairs he showed a rare com- 
bination of qualities, leading his administration to 
be spoken of by Dudley as the "wise administra- 
tion of Dummer." 

The Dummer Mansion, which is situated in By- 
field, then Newbury, Massachusetts is prominently 
connected with the town's history, being one of the 


most notable colonial homes in New England. It 
was built by Governor Dummer about 171 5 on a 
farm which was given him by his father on October 
15, 1 713, a few months before his marriage. It is 
a fine specimen of the houses of that day, showing 
brick sides and resembling in architecture the 
Royall House at Medford, Massachusetts. 

Just after he and his bride took up their abode 
in the newly completed mansion, a house-warming 
was held. Governor Dummer, so the legend runs, 
was a famous horseman, and on this occasion he is 
said to have dashed up the broad front staircase 
to the second floor, mounted on a magnificent 
white charger, much to the consternation of the 
guests. This event took place in the month of 
August in the time of the full moon, and tradition 
relates that he repeats this performance even unto 
the present day whenever in August there are two 
full moons, riding forth on the occasion of the first 
full moon and charging up the stairs and down again. 

In the kitchen of the mansion house on several 
occasions a little child appeared. Whenever the 
apartment was left vacant, the next person to 
come in would find a little golden-haired, blue- 
eyed girl about five years of age, balancing herself 
upon the door-sill and peeping in and out just as 



a real child naturally would do at play. She was 
never seen in any other part of the house. Where 
she came from no one ever knew. She always 
appeared in the same doorway and after standing 
awhile would vanish. She became so familiar to 
the people of the house that they called her Eliza- 
beth. She had such a pleasant, smiling face that 
even the most timid person felt no fear of her. 

During the oiling of the kitchen floor a child's 
ring was discovered in a crack where it had lain 
for years. In trying to get it out, a secret spring 
was seen and a trap-door was disclosed. On open- 
ing it, an old ladder was revealed, leading to the 
space below, but it fell to fragments at a touch. 
The cellar underneath was explored. In a secret 
recess was a small chamber not larger than a grave. 
Inside was a large, round, cheese box, which con- 
tained the bones of a child. These were properly 
buried, and the apparition ceased to appear. 

In the slave quarters, which were in the ell of 
the mansion house, the slaves were chained each 
night to prevent their escaping. The rings to 
which the chains were attached were to be seen 
until quite recently, and when the wind was right, 
the clanking of the chains could plainly be heard. 

Outside the house on the green, so the story runs, 


Plate XLIV. — Dining Room, Dummer Mansion ; Den, 
Dummer Mansion. 

Plate XLV. — Two Views of the Living Room, Dummer 



a duel was fought by an English officer and a 
gentleman over an affront concerning Madam 
Dummer. The English officer was killed, and 
tradition relates that he appeared subsequently. 
He was clad in epaulets and gold lace, wandering 
about as if in search of his adversary. He always 
wore an amazingly large, powdered white wig and 
carried a dress sword in its sheath, as on the oc- 
casion of the fateful encounter. 

The present mansion, remodelled, is to-day a 
famous landmark. It is considered an excellent 
example of a colonial home, with its pitched roof, 
its huge stone chimneys covered with mortar, 
its dormer windows, and its Georgian porch. One 
enters through the wide doors into a noble hall- 
way extending entirely through the house, the 
woodwork showing fine panelling of white pine. 
The box stairs rise by easy treads to the wide 
landing, where a colonial window gives light to 
the apartment. At the foot of the staircase is an 
arch, a great ornament to the hallway. The bal- 
usters are hand-carved, the newel post being plain. 
The balusters and stairs are of mahogany and the 
furniture is Windsor. 

Opening from the hall at the right are double 
parlors. On the wall hangs a fine portrait of 



Governor Dummer and his wife, Katherlne Dudley. 
The portrait of the governor is in oil by Smibert, 
while a copy of it by the late Frederick Vinton is 
in the Senate Chamber of the State House in 
Boston. The parlor shows woodwork in place of 
plastering or paper. The old shutters have been 
carefully preserved as have the window-seats. 
The furniture is of the colonial type, including 
Chippendale and Windsor pieces. 

Opposite the parlor is the living-room, with its 
fine carvings shown in the mantel. This carving 
is done in wood and not in French putty glued on, 
as is the case with many ornamentations. Al- 
though there is fine panelling and woodwork in 
this room, it shows plaster and paper as well. 
Double doors open into the rear parlor, now used 
as a dining-room. These doors show strap hinges 
and are considered fine specimens of the colonial 
period. Wonderful woodwork is seen in this 
room, as in other rooms in the house. 

When the parish was renamed, the name of 
Dummer was proposed. Finally, however, it was 
called after Judge Byfield on account of a hand- 
some gift proposed by him. In acknowledgment 
of this compliment a bell was presented to the 
church by Judge Byfield. 




One of the noted houses in Portsmouth, New 
Hampshire, is the Warner house. This is a large 
brick mansion of ample dimensions, which stands 
at the corner of Daniel and Chapel Streets, and 
has the distinction of being the oldest brick resi- 
dence in town. It must be remembered that the 
use of brick in house-building was not extensively 
carried out in the colonies, even as late as the early- 
nineteenth century. Occasionally we find houses 
where brick was used to cover the frame, outside 
of which was an exterior of wood. This was for 
the sake of warmth, for, as we know, in the early 
days not only was the climate more severe, but 
there were not the scientific methods of heating 
known to-day. 

While the frame of these houses was generally 
of oak, yet the shingles or clapboards were of white 
pine. White pine was very generally used then, 
chiefly on account of its lasting quality. This is 



evidenced very plainly in many old houses of that 
period which are found to-day in a remarkable 
state of preservation. This same wood was used 
not only for clapboards but for the principal in- 
terior finish, and we often find it in large panels as 
perfect as when put in place two hundred years 
or more ago. 

Wood was generally used during the eighteenth 
century, but we occasionally find a brick house such 
as the Macphaedris-Warner house. The brick 
used was generally imported in those days, for 
the American brick was of rather an inferior quality 
to that obtained on the other side of the water. 
The bricks and tiles used in this house were imported 
as ballast from Holland in some of the vessels 
owned by Captain Macphaedris. 

It is two centuries ago that this mansion was 
erected and it is still as perfect in construction as 
it was the day of its finish. There has been no 
change in either exterior or interior, so that it can 
well be considered a fine example of a house that 
represents true honest labor and the skill of the 
master mechanic. Another thing in its favor is 
that it has always remained in the family. Much 
of the furniture shown there to-day was formerly 
imported by Captain Macphaedris, who felt the 


Plate XLVI. — The Warner House, Portsmouth, N. H. 




I— I 



need of furnishing it for his bride in accordance 
with his station. 

At the time of its erection, Captain Archibald 
Macpheadris was a wealthy merchant and Tory 
at heart, being a member of the King's Council. 
He came over from Scotland, attracted by stories 
of the new country's wealth, in the early part of 
the eighteenth century, and taking kindly to life 
here, he entered into trade and was so prudent that 
later on he was able to build this splendid house. 
The building was designed as a town residence, 
and although twelve miles distant from his in- 
dustry, was considered a suitable situation for 
this very reason. He preferred to leave business 
cares at the close of the day and spend the Inter- 
vening time as far removed from them as possible. 

Early in the eighteenth century iron works were 
founded at Dover, New Hampshire. They were 
the first of the kind ever established in this coun- 
try, and Captain Macphaedrls was the chief 
promoter of the new industry. In addition to 
this, he carried on an extensive fur trade with the 
Indians, with whom he was very friendly ; by 
combining the profits from his two ventures he 
was able to amass a considerable fortune. 

A distinct feature of this house is the design of 



the roof and the high brick chimneys, which con- 
vey a hint of Dutch sturdiness and which resemble 
many of the houses in the Netherlands. This 
goes to show that the valiant captain imported 
Dutch ideas along with his bricks and tiles. 

When finished, this mansion was three stories in 
height, being perfectly plain with the exception of 
two fine doorways, the one on the front being much 
the more elaborate. These have never been 
changed since the days they were placed there. 
Whether the walls were built to resist attacks of 
the Indians or not will never be known, but they 
are eighteen inches thick, making the house one 
of the warmest of that period. 

The plans of the house were designed in accord- 
ance with the wishes of the bride, who was no less 
a personage than Sarah Wentworth, the daughter 
of Governor John Wentworth, and one of the 
reigning belles of Portsmouth. That it was an 
expensive house is shown from the fact that it 
cost six thousand pounds or thirty thousand dol- 
lars, a considerable sum to be spent In those early 
days, when money was not plentiful. The fur- 
niture was all Imported, brought over in Captain 
Macphaedris' ships and especially designed for 
the house. It was In many respects quite different 



from much of the furniture that had been brought 
into the colony, and as much of the original is 
still shown, we realize how carefully the captain 
must have sought to combine beauty and comfort. 

The house was most carefully built, for it was 
first commenced in 171 8 and not completed until 
five years later, in 1723. In all probability the 
opening of the house was attended by a large 
housewarming, to which the dignitaries of Ports- 
mouth, including Governor John Wentworth, were 
invited, but the event was considered of too little 
importance to be mentioned in the annals that 
are left concerning the mansion. 

By a strange irony of fate, the name of the man 
whose money and brains built the house is rarely 
associated with it ; the fine old pile is known far 
and near by the name of the man who married the 
captain's daughter Mary, a comely lass who was 
a great belle in the town. He was the Hon. 
Jonathan Warner, a member of the King's Council 
until the Revolution made his commission inef- 
fective. Mr. Warner was a familiar figure about 
Portsmouth in the latter days of the eighteenth 
century and is spoken of, in an old review, as "one 
of the last of the cocked hats." He invariably 
wore a long-skirted brown coat, small clothes, 



silk stockings, and buckles on his shoes. He 
always carried a cane, and his dignified bearing 
never failed to impress the youngsters of the place 
with proper respect, and they always courteously 
saluted him as he passed. And to-day the visitor 
at Porstmouth has the Macphaedris- Warner house 
pointed out to him as the Warner house. 

There can be no better proof that this house 
was well built than the fact that it has withstood 
the ravages of New England weather for nearly 
two hundred years and is still in good condition, 
the eighteen-inch walls of honest Dutch brick as 
staunch as the day they were laid. The gambrel 
roof, the Lutheran windows, and the quaint cupola 
all mark this three-storied house as a genuine 
old-timer, and the broad, simply ornamented 
doorways are suggestive of good old colonial hos- 
pitality, for this house was the scene of many a 
merrymaking. Over the brick pavement, laid 
herring-bone pattern, and up the stone steps came 
many a dignitary of the land, who lifted the pon- 
derous brass knocker, and as the panelled door 
swung back on its long, strapped hinges, entered 
the spacious hall, which extends the entire length 
of the house. 

There are a few pieces of the old mahogany fur- 



niture left, showing to best advantage against the 
white panelling of the wall. The staircase at the 
extreme left is hand-carved, the newel post being 
exceedingly plain. 

The heavy iron bar that still securely fastens 
the entrance door bespeaks a time when the red 
men lurked in Portsmouth and made this protection 
a necessity. If reliance is to be placed on old 
traditions, the captain was a great friend of the 
Indians. The fact that two portraits of Indian 
chiefs are still hanging upon the wall seems to 
corroborate this story. 

But the most distinctive and remarkable feature 
of this hall is the wall fresco, reaching from the 
foot of the stairs to the second-story landing, on 
the rough plaster of which are depicted various 
scenes, all the work of a master hand. These 
wonderful frescoes, covering an area of from four 
to five hundred feet, were hidden many years ago, 
and have only been exposed within the last sixty 
years. As proof of the fact that the frescoes must 
have been covered up for many years, the story is 
told of an old lady eighty years of age who was a 
constant visitor at the Warner house during her 
girlhood days. When shown these paintings she 
looked at them wonderingly and asserted that 



their existence was unknown at the time when she 
was an intimate of the family. 

Opening from the hallway on the right is the 
parlor, a spacious apartment, panelled from floor 
to ceiling. A great fireplace, faced with quaint 
Dutch tiles, occupies one corner; and on the 
narrow mantel above, resting against a beautiful 
old mirror, is the Warner coat of arms. Beside 
this is the coat of arms of the Sherburne family, 
into whose possession the old house passed in the 
early part of the nineteenth century. At one 
side of the room is a broad, arched doorway, where 
once stood a large pipe organ which was removed 
some years ago. 

Several fine pieces of Chippendale and Sheraton 
furniture are placed about the room, and from the 
panelled walls stately dames and oldtime gallants 
deign to give the intruder a haughty glance. 
These fine old portraits, all painted by the famous 
Copley, were originally encased in Paul Revere 
frames. During the great fire which swept through 
the town a number of years ago, the pictures were 
removed to insure their safety, and before their 
return all the frames, with the exception of the one 
encasing the portrait of Mary Macphaedris War- 
ner, had mysteriously disappeared, and no trace 






of them has ever been found. Included in the 
collection are portraits of Captain Macphaedris, 
Hon. Jonathan Warner, and his daughter Mary. 
The latter is pictured as an oldtime belle, in a 
gown of stiff brocade and rich red lace. 

Opposite the parlor is the living-room, panelled 
like the hall, and possessing the same charm as the 
rest of the house. The walls are adorned by queer, 
old-fashioned pictures and heavy, gilt-framed mir- 
rors, the latter reflecting in their depths the beauty 
of the rare old mahogany with which the room is 

Beside the broad fireplace, tiled in brown, is a 
spacious cupboard, deftly concealed in the panelling, 
where are stored quantities of fine old silver and 
china, the treasured possessions of many genera- 
tions of Warners and Sherburnes. This fireplace 
is framed in quaint Dutch tiles, but instead of 
grate and andirons it contains a Franklin stove, 
surmounted by a queer coffee-urn once owned by 
Governor Langdon. Although quaintly attrac- 
tive, this stove is not nearly so interesting from an 
historic point of view as is a stove still used in one 
of the chambers. The latter, although not nearly 
so pretentious, has the distinction of having been 
set up by Franklin himself, one of three in Ports- 



mouth whose installment he personally super- 

A fine example of mahogany is shown in a 
beautiful secretary standing at one side of the 
room, and through its traceried-glass doors are 
caught glimpses of curious shells and bits of pink 
and red coral — brought home by some seafaring 
Sherburne — as well as numerous Indian relics. 
It has also a few old books left from a rare collec- 
tion. Near by is a diminutive desk, interesting 
from the fact that it is said to be an exact repro- 
duction in every detail of one brought to this 
country by John Alden. 

Each chamber shows wonderful four-posters, 
hand-knotted spreads, odd candlesticks, foot-stoves, 
and powder-horns, each piece enhancing the flavor 
and romance that clings to every nook and corner 
of the old house. All these relics, as well as the 
fire-buckets hanging in the rear hall, have been in 
the family for generations. 

Carefully treasured in an old chest up-stairs are 
many things connected with Colonel Jonathan 
Warner. There is the embroidered military suit 
which he wore when serving in the Continental 
army, together with his sword and cocked hat. 
These, with a bill of lading presented with much 



of the family plate and imported furniture, have 
been preserved in the family ever since 1713. 
Indeed, every piece of furniture and every treasure 
is historic and has its own distinctive story. 

The fine simplicity of colonial designs is well 
illustrated by the outside of this house. Its 
simplicity verges almost upon the forbidding, as 
there is nothing but flat walls of brick, windows of 
severe design, and a simple cornice that sets off 
fine old doorways enriched with delicate dentations 
and supported by hand-carved Corinthian col- 

To-day, after nearly two centuries of existence, 
the house is as solid as it was on the day it was 
erected, and with its quiet atmosphere of age, its 
oldtime flavor obtained through steady and long 
continued use, and the treasury of relics shown 
here, is conceded to be the most picturesque house 
in Portsmouth. 





One of the most historic houses in New Hamp- 
shire is situated at Little Harbor, about two miles 
from the city of Portsmouth. It was built in the 
latter sixteenth century, or early seventeenth, 
the exact date not being known, for the records 
of the early days were carelessly kept, so that 
there is nothing legible to determine the time of 
its erection. The houses that were built during 
this period are generally of such a distinct type 
that there is little or no difficulty in placing them 
and ascertaining their age. 

This is not true of the Wentworth Mansion, for 
its design does not definitely indicate the architec- 
ture of any special period. One does not wonder, 
when history tells us that it was bought by Gov- 
ernor Bennington Wentworth in 1750, that it was 
at that time simply a farmhouse of moderate size 
which had been occupied by one of the earliest set- 
tlers in this section, whose name has never been 
handed down. 









Plate LI. — Hallwa}-, Weiitworth House. 


After its purchase, great pains were taken to 
make it an attractive and habitable house. Rooms 
were added, and ells were built, until it assumed its 
present size. It is a stately pile, with wings joined 
to either side of the long main building, occupying 
three sides of a hollow square, and showing open 
ends facing the water. 

Its original appearance has been carefully main- 
tained by the present owner, who occupies the 
estate as a summer residence. With great care 
the garden has been restored to the distinctly old- 
fashioned type, while all the memorable traditions 
of the building have been preserved. There is 
about it an atmosphere differing from most houses 
of that time, partly due to its retired situation. 

From the high road one enters the curving 
avenue to seek the house, hidden from the entrance 
behind hills and trees. The main entrance is the 
same as in the governor's day. There is a second 
entrance, however, nearer the house, through 
which we get glimpses of the mansion beyond. 
This is flanked by two marble statues, one of 
which represents an angler dressed in colonial 
costume, while the second is a hunter, armed with 
a Rip Van Winkle fowling-piece. 
They seem to extend, with outstretched arms, 


a mute welcome to the guest, for hospitality has 
ever been a characteristic of the Wentworth man- 

The grounds are extensive and are laid out in 
lawns and grass lands. The house is surrounded 
by shade trees, some of which were there when the 
governor occupied the mansion. 

Its exterior shows a gray finish, the same color- 
ing that was originally in use. The porch through 
which the house is entered is the same one through 
which Washington passed when, during his visit 
to Portsmouth, he came to this mansion on his 
return from a fishing trip, and was royally enter- 
tained by the widow of Governor Wentworth. 

The rear of the house faces the harbor, at the 
spot where the governor's wharf used to be, for 
in the early days ships were anchored near by, 
and their officers were frequently entertained at 
the mansion. 

It is said that in the early days of its occupancy 
by the governor, a secret passage connected the 
house with the wharf, and boats were kept always 
in waiting, ready to be off at a moment's notice. 
This was done so that the unpopular head of the 
government might escape at any time if an at- 
tempt was made to take his life. 



On a neighboring island which is in plain sight, 
there were several small houses, moved there on 
a scow. 

Governor Wentworth, who was the first owner 
of this house, was the governor of New Hampshire 
during the most troublesome times of our coun- 
try's history. He was elected in 1741 and served 
for twenty-five years, during which period he 
conducted the affairs of government through 
stormy times and two bloody wars, and there is little 
doubt that he administered the affairs as well as 
most men could have done under such trying cir- 
cumstances. It is well known, however, that he 
pleased neither people nor king. At the end of 
his term of office he was courteously superseded 
by his nephew, John Wentworth, whose popu- 
larity had won him favor. 

It was then, in 1767, that Governor Wentworth 
retired to the colonial home at Portsmouth. 
During his administration, his wife and his chil- 
dren had died. Lonely and discouraged, he offered 
himself in marriage to one Molly Pitman, who 
chose instead Richard Shortridge, a mechanic by 
trade. Doubtless through his instigation, be- 
cause piqued at the indignity of her refusal, a 
press gang seized Shortridge and carried him away. 



He was sent from ship to ship, until a friendly 
officer listened to his sad tale and allowed him to 
escape and return home, to find his wife still true, 
although tempted by the allurements of wealth. 

Not cast down, however, by his ill luck, the 
governor soon after made the house at Little Har- 
bor his all-the-year-round home. The house be- 
came the rendezvous for prominent personages — 
not only in New Hampshire, but through the land. 
During one dinner party given to distinguished 
guests an important event occurred. In the 
governor's employ was a girl of most attractive 
personality, who had entered the house as a domes- 
tic, and bore the name of Martha Hilton. Her 
beauty attracted the attention of the governor, 
so that he desired to marry her. Among the 
guests was one Reverend Arthur Brown, of the 
Episcopal church. The dinner was served in the 
style becoming to the governor's table. Just as 
it was over, the governor whispered, so low 
that no one else could hear, to a messenger who 
stood near by. Then Martha Hilton came in 
through the hall door, on the west side of the par- 
lor, and looking down, a blush upon her cheek, 
took her stand in front of the open fireplace. 

She did not bring anything with her, nor did she 


seem to expect to take anything out. The gov- 
ernor, his hair bleached with the frost of sixty win- 
ters, arose, and turning to the rector, he asked : 
"Mr. Brown, will you marry me ?" 

The pastor looked up aghast. "To whom.?" 
he asked. 

Stepping to Martha's side, and taking her hand 
in his, the governor answered : "To this lady." 

The rector still stood confounded, and the gov- 
ernor, angered by the delay, in an imperative 
manner said : "As the Governor of New Hamp- 
shire, I command you to marry us." 

Then and there, in the presence of the assembled 
guests, the ceremony was duly performed, and 
Martha Hilton became Madam Wentworth. As 
a careless, laughing girl, barefooted, and carrying 
a pail of water, with a dress scarcely sufficient to 
cover her, Martha was said to have declared : "No 
matter how I look, I shall ride in my chariot yet," 
and she now achieved her ambition. In a charm- 
ing little poem Longfellow relates this incident 
and assures us that she filled the position with 
great dignity. 

The old governor did not live long to enjoy his 
New Hampshire home. His widow, however, soon 
forgot her solitude, after rejecting many offers of 



marriage, for we read of her marriage not very 
long afterwards to Michael Wentworth, a retired 
colonel of the British army. One daughter, 
Martha, was born as the fruit of their marriage. 

In 1789 Washington came to Portsmouth to 
visit the Wentworth mansion. He sailed into 
the harbor on one of his ships and was received 
with characteristic hospitality by Colonel Michael 
Wentworth and his lady, both of whom accorded 
him a royal welcome. 

The colonel was a high liver and prided himself 
on his horsemanship. The legend runs that he 
started from Boston at eight o'clock in the morn- 
ing and arrived in Portsmouth at 6 o'clock in the 
afternoon, a feat which was considered remarkable. 

He was not master of the house for many years, 
for he died suddenly in 1795. After his death, 
Sir John Wentworth, a lawyer in Portsmouth, 
married Martha Wentworth, the daughter, and 
they occupied the house in Little Harbor together 
with Madam Wentworth until the time of her 
death in 1805. Upon their departure to Europe 
in 1 8 16, the house passed out of the family. 

The house stands as it was built, the massive 
door, three inches in thickness, at its main entrance, 
showing enormous locks and strapped hinges that 







Plate LIII. — Rooni in Wentworth House where Martha 
Hilton was made Bride ; Council Chamber, Wentworth House. 


extended eighteen inches in either direction. Strap 
hinges were a necessity in those days, as the doors 
were fastened together with wooden pegs, and 
unless this precaution was taken, they would sag. 

One enters a narrow vestibule which gives into 
an inner hallway. This, too, is narrow, severely 
plain, and strictly colonial in type. The old stair- 
case has hand-carved balusters. There is no 
change in the panelling upon the walls, and the 
original bull's-eyes are in the door opposite the 

The hallway leads at the left into a colonial 
dining-room, with rich panelling, and an old fire- 
place which is large enough to hold a yule log. 
The room is spacious and fitted with furnishings 
of colonial type. Over the mantel is hung an old 
powder-horn and flint-lock, while at one side are 
colonial relics : a cabinet of old china and a Shera- 
ton table with late mahogany chairs form the 

Adjoining the dining-room is a large pantry, 
which contains some ovens that were at one time 
used for the making of rum, doubtless partaken of 
very freely during the governor's residence there. 

At the right of the hallway is the present living- 
room, where are many relics of the old governor; 



in one corner is a chair in which he sat. The old 
fireplace before which Martha Hilton stood on her 
wedding night is in this room. 

Passing through, one reaches a narrow landing 
and a short flight of stairs which connect with 
the hallway below, where we come upon the orig- 
inal entrance. The walls on either side over the 
door are decorated with arms. These are thir- 
teen in number, and are the muskets of the gov- 
ernor's guard, so long ago dismissed. Yonder Is 
the Council Chamber. In this spacious apart- 
ment for many years were discussed public affairs 
of the utmost importance ; heated debates were 
carried on in the stormy times that antedated 
the Revolution. It is finished in the best style of 
the last century, the carved work around the 
mantel taking more than a year's work with the 
knife and chisel of a master carpenter. 

Around the room were formerly a great many 
pictures of the family. Among them was a choice 
painting by Copley of the beautiful Dorothy 
Quincy who became the wife of John Hancock, and 
who came frequently to visit in Portsmouth. 
There were wonderful pictures of Secretary Wal- 
dron, who was killed by the Indians at Dover, and 
also of his son Westbrook. Sofas and rare bits 



of colonial furniture furnished the room in the 
governor's day, and the closely jointed, smooth 
white floors, which are none the worse for a cen- 
tury's wear, have been pressed by the feet of many 
a merry dancer. 

We look at pictures of the old-time occupants, 
in periwigs and silver buckles, who people the 
shadows in the dim grandeur of this wonderful 
old room. In one corner still stands a rack, with 
sixteen flint-locks, some of which have bayonets 
attached. This stand of arms was discovered by 
the present owner hidden away under plaster. 
Just what is concealed to-day in the old house is 
not known, for it has never been fully explored. 
Naturally one conjectures secret closets and hidden 
passageways, such as were built in many houses 
of that period. 

Beyond is the billiard-room. There is now no 
billiard table but instead a spinning-wheel, and a 
dainty, old-fashioned spinet upon which little 
Martha Wentworth learned to play. One wonders 
if it was in this room that Madam Wentworth 
dropped her ring to be picked up by the maid. 
All at once the maid became near-sighted, and it 
was not until Martha herself stooped down and 
touched her ring that it could be found. 



Several smaller rooms lead out of the billiard- 
room. They were used in the olden times as card- 
rooms, and here many a close rubber was played 
by the great and reverend patriots of the land. 

Underneath is a huge, rambling cellar where the 
builder of the mansion kept stalls for thirty horses, 
ready at a moment's notice to be off. The gun- 
rack in the hall of the Council Chamber does much 
to convince us that the great man whose per- 
sonality is stamped so deeply on this interesting 
pile, must have led a very uneasy life. There were 
no descendants to inherit the old home, but he left 
a lasting memorial to himself in the house which 
embodied so many of his ideals. 




In the little town of Hillsboro, New Hampshire, 
stand two notable houses. One of them was 
formerly the home of Governor Benjamin Pierce, 
while the other was occupied by his son, Franklin 
Pierce, who was the fourteenth president of the 
United States. Both houses are in a good state of 
preservation, the former being used as a village 
inn, while the latter, still filled with interesting 
mementoes connected with the life of President 
Pierce, is now occupied by his nephew, Mr. Kirk 
Pierce. These houses are not in the village proper 
but just outside, in a location known as Hillsboro 
Bridge, a romantic, wooded section on the main 
road, where in the early days the stage-coach 
passed on its way to Concord, New Hampshire, not 
so very far away. 

Franklin Pierce was born on November 23, 
1804, in the old homestead where his father. 
Governor Pierce, lived, and here he passed his 



early days. The old governor was a prominent 
character in the history of New Hampshire, being 
one of the heroes of Bunker Hill, afterwards be- 
coming governor of the State of New Hampshire, 
a man revered and loved, not only by the military 
element of the State but by politicians as well. 

Even when Franklin Pierce was a child, there 
existed a true companionship between the boy and 
his father. He was an attractive lad, with light 
curling hair that fell to his shoulders, blue eyes, 
and a winsome face. Not particularly fond of 
study, he was the ringleader in all the pranks 
played in the neighborhood ; yet he was beloved 
by all the townspeople, who were a bit suspicious 
of him, however, never knowing what tricks would 
be played on them through his love of fun and 
influence with the other boys. 

It was a pleasant sight during the long winter 
evenings to see this fair-haired boy sitting upon 
his father's knee, listening to stories of his army 
life. These filled the boy with a desire to enter 
the militia and win for himself glory on the battle- 

His early education was obtained in a little 
brick schoolhouse that is still standing at Hills- 
boro Centre, about a mile and a half distant from 

[ 142 1 











his home. Here In his boyhood days he attended 
school with twenty other children. At one time 
during his school life here, a visitor who was talk- 
ing to the children told them to have a high aim 
in life, for in that very room might be a future 
president of the United States, — a prophecy that 
rang true. 

Later on Pierce was sent to Hancock to enter 
the academy. Unused to discipline, he became 
very homesick and walked all the way home to 
see his family. It was on a Sunday morning that 
he appeared in the yard and found that the house- 
hold had gone to church. On their return, they 
found him sitting on a bench waiting for them. 
When asked the reason why he came home un- 
announced, he pleaded homesickness. His father 
was a stern disciplinarian and without a word had 
a horse harnessed into a chaise; Franklin was 
driven into the midst of a dense wood and left 
to walk the rest of the way back to the academy. 
It was a dark day and a heavy thunder shower 
came up, so that he was drenched to his skin by 
the time he reached school. In speaking of it 
afterwards he said: "It was the turning-point of 
my life. I learned the lesson that my father 
wished to impress upon me." 



At the age of sixteen he entered Bowdoln Col- 
lege and became one of the most popular students. 
Not inclined to study, the first two years of his 
life were spent in partial idleness, until suddenly 
he awoke to the value of education and was gradu- 
ated with honors. 

Another turning-point In his life lay in the time 
when he first met Nathaniel Hawthorne. This 
meeting was in a stage-coach, in 1821, when Pierce 
was returning to college during his sophomore 
year. In the same coach also were Jonathan 
Cilley and Alfred Mason, both intimates then and 
in after years. 

It might be said that Pierce's political campaign 
commenced at college, for here he held his first 
civic ofiice as chairman of the Athenean Society, 
also being elected captain of a little company 
formed in the college. 

There are still treasured in the college library 
at Brunswick, Maine, two mementoes of his col- 
lege life. The one Is a silhouette found In a little 
red book containing the pictures of the members of 
the class, which was made before the art of photog- 
raphy was known. The second Is a theme that 
was written in Latin, one of his later works. 

He followed his father's career as politician, 


making his first stump speech in favor of the victor 
of New Orleans and against John Quincy Adams. 
He entered Congress at the age of twenty-nine and 
quickly rose to high political favor ; he was elected 
to the Senate in 1837, being at that time its 
youngest member. 

During his term of office, he stood firm for his 
party against the opposing members, and yet so 
popular was he that when his hour of departure 
came, the senators crowded around him as though 
he were a personal friend, and no member of the 
Senate ever retired with warmer friends. Among 
his associates in Congress were such men as Cal- 
houn, Wentworth, and Clay, — men who were 
helpful to him in his political life. He decided, 
however, that he had had enough of politics so 
he returned to his own State and took up his pro- 
fession of attorney, devoting much of his time to 
caring for his invalid wife. 

His views, nevertheless, did not meet with the 
approbation of the people. Soon the Mexican 
War broke out, and he was forced to enter the 
fight, accepting the position of Colonel of the 
Ninth Regiment. During all this time Hawthorne 
and he remained intimates. 

Across the road is a simple little farmhouse where 



Pierce spent his early married life, and where 
Hawthorne was a frequent guest. The life of 
Hawthorne is connected with that of Franklin 
Pierce far more than is realized, unless one has 
delved deep into the unusual friendship of these 
two men. The one, standing at the front of 
the literary world, sad, morbid, and needing the 
helpful hand of a friend, was encouraged to work 
by the other, whom he loved. He shows his 
appreciation by his dedication of Our Old Home 
and Biographical Sketches. In the preface he tells 
of the love and appreciation of his work given to 
him by Pierce, and the praise the latter considered 
his due. 

On the other hand stood Franklin Pierce, the 
lawyer, soldier, statesmen, friend, one who had 
battled with the world and whose term of office 
fell at a time when it was hardest to fill — when the 
slavery question was being weighed. These two 
men, strongly differing from each other in every 
trait, were peculiarly united by strong ties of 
mutual love and helpfulness. 

It was not to the Hillsboro house alone that 
Hawthorne came, but also to the colonial mansion 
where Pierce spent his childhood days. There is 
still seen on the grounds an old tree where one can 



just decipher, cut on the bark, the names of 
Hawthorne and Franklin Pierce. 

This old homestead in which Franklin Pierce's 
father lived, has on the drawing-room wall a won- 
derful old paper as fresh and bright as when placed 
there a century ago by the original owner. During 
the governor's lifetime, this mansion was on the 
direct route of the Washington stage, which 
brought many a distinguished guest to enjoy the 
bounteous hospitality that was dispensed here. 
Nearly all the leading men of New Hampshire 
visited Squire Pierce's house, among them being 
Judge Woodbury, Gpvernor Steele, and the 

The grounds were not extensive, comprising a 
little more than an acre of land, but were for those 
days wonderfully laid out with walks, gardens, 
summer-house, and artificial pond, well stocked 
with trout. The garden was considered to be one 
of the show places of the time, and here from the 
summer-house the casual visitor fished for trout 
in the pond beneath. 

The mansion, a colonial type, stands just back 
of the road. It was a pretentious house in the 
olden days, as revealed by the broad stairs and 
hand-carved balusters. The walls are lined with 



family portraits, representing three generations of 
this distinguished family. The great parlor at the 
left shows heavy cornices, massive hearthstones, 
and many historical relics. The wall-paper shows 
landscapes, tournaments, and festivals. In this 
house Franklin Pierce lived until he was married 
in 1834 to Jane Means, daughter of Rev. Dr. 

Following this event, he purchased the farm- 
house across the way, which remains in the family 
and which contains a wonderful collection of fine 
paintings, autograph letters, and historical relics. 
Among the latter is a picture of William H. Marcy, 
Secretary of State under President Pierce, who 
ordered the picture painted at a cost of one thou- 
sand dollars. Near by is one of the best paintings 
of Hawthorne extant, which was also painted at 
the same cost by order of the president. In 
addition to these paintings are many others of 
distinguished men, including one of Pierce's father 
and many of himself. His wife's picture is not 
among the collection, but is owned by Mrs. Charles 
M. Stark of Dunbarton, New Hampshire, who 
descended from the same ancestry. 

Many mementoes connected with the life of 
Franklin Pierce are still treasured in the old house 



and include several swords, one of which was 
given by the ladies of Hillsboro when Pierce entered 
service in the Mexican War. This, together with 
a letter that accompanied it, is shown to the 
visitor, as well as a second sword given him by the 
State of New Hampshire at the close of the war. 
There can also be seen many interesting and his- 
torical canes. 

But the most important collection in the house 
is that of autograph letters representing corre- 
spondence with his old friend Hawthorne, whose 
friendship was terminated only by death; of 
Presidents Jackson and Polk, and many others of 
equal note. Perhaps the most pathetic of this 
collection of letters, however, is a little one written 
in a childish hand by his son Benjamin, who was 
killed in a railroad accident near Andover. This 
letter is as follows : 

"Andover, Mass., 

Dear Mother: 

"I am having a pleasant time at Aunt Mary's 
and I should like to stay until next week. To-day 
is a rainy day. I don't go out much but stay in 
the house and play with Jamie. Edward has just 
brought the news from Boston that father is a 



candidate for the presidency. I hope he won't be 
elected, for I should not like to live in Washington, 
and I know you would not either. I am very well 
and so are the rest of the family. Little Fanny is 
quite well again and as bright as a bird. Little 
Mary can walk if somebody takes hold of her 
hands. Aunt Rebecca sends love to you. I hope 
you are much better than when you went away. 
I want you to excuse my bad writing. I have an 
extra bad pen. It is full of everything but ink. 
Give my love to father. I will now end this letter, 
so good-bye. 

"Your affectionate son, 


He had his wish gratified, for on the threshold 
of the presidency his father's heart was broken by 
the untimely death of his son. 

Among the many treasured letters of Haw- 
thorne's is one written from the Old Manse. 

"Concord, Dec. 3, 1861. 
"Dear Pierce : 

"Here is a letter from old Sullivan, and as he 

wished a portion of it to be communicated to you, 

I think it best to send the whole. After reading 

it, please return it. You will be glad to see how 



confidently he writes respecting the success of his 
copper mines, but I shall hardly share his hopes at 
present. After knowing him for so many years and 
seeing him always on the verge of making a for- 
tune and always disappointed, poor fellow, I am 
not sure that the fate he half anticipates would not 
be the best thing for him — to be shot or hung — 
but perhaps I am as usual too despondent as he is 
too sanguine. 

"We are all perfectly well and as happy as the 
times will permit anybody to be. 

"With kindest regard to Mrs. Pierce, 
"Sincerely yours, 

"Nathaniel Hawthorne." 

There is another letter from Hawthorne showing 
the close intimacy that existed between the two 

"I suppose your election to Congress is abso- 
lutely certain. Of course, however, there will be 
opposition and I wish you would send me papers 
laudatory and abusive of you. I shall read them 
with great interest, be what they may. It is a 
pity that I am not in a situation to use my pen in 
your behalf though you do not seem to need the 
assistance of newspaper scribblers. I do not feel 



very well and will close my letter here, especially 
as your many associations will not permit you to 
read a longer one. I shall be happy to hear from 
you as often as you find leisure and inclination to 

"I observe the paper styled you as Hon. Frank- 
lin Pierce. Have you already an official claim to 
that title ? 

"Your friend, 

"Hathaniel Hawthorne, alias Hath." 

And again we find a letter written later. 

"Dear General: 

" I deeply regret we are not to have our mountain 
excursion together, and especially grieved that the 
disappointment should be on account of Mrs. 
Pierce's ill health. As the greater part of my 
pleasure would have been your companionship I 
question whether I shall press the matter any 
farther, although I do not as yet decidedly give 
up the idea. 

"Some spiteful abolitionist took trouble to send 
to me a compendium of abusive paragraphs from 
the newspapers in reference to you, and it seems to 
me that the best way of disappointing his malice 



was to lay them aside without reading one of them, 
which I accordingly did. 

''With best regard to Mrs. Pierce and most earnest 
wishes for a speedy recovery, 

" Faithfully yours, 

In addition to the Hawthorne letters are some 
written by Jefferson Davis, who was a close friend 
of President Pierce, and who was appointed by the 
latter Secretary of War during his administration. 
The friendship between Jefferson Davis and Presi- 
dent Pierce commenced during the time when 
Pierce was a member of the Senate. Mr. Davis 
thus writes concerning him to one of his personal 

"Mr. Pierce, then a member of the Senate, sus- 
tained every cardinal principle asserted by Mr. 
Calhoun, and there was not a member of the Senate 
who more uniformly voted to sustain them. As an 
auditor I heard the debate, watched the votes, 
and then commenced the affectionate esteem and 
high appreciation of Mr. Pierce which grew and 
strengthened with every succeeding year of his 
life. The position he then assumed clearly indi- 
cated the views subsequently expressed in the 
extract you have incorporated in your article 



"Like many other practical statesmen, he was 
not disposed to disturb the * Missouri Compromise,' 
but I have little doubt that at any period of his 
political career he would have said that it should 
have never been adopted. When he saw by the 
legislation of 1850, with which he was no more 
connected than that of 1820, the manifestation of 
a purpose to assert sound political principles and 
follow more closely the Constitution as it was 
written, he could but rejoice in this triumph of 
the creed he had so bravely defended in 1837-8. 

"The situation made by you from his message 
of Dec. 1885, and especially the closing words 
of the extract, * Existing or Incipient States,' 
proved undoubtedly that his understanding was 
that institutions were to be ordained and estab- 
lished not by the first adventurers into a wilder- 
ness, but by organized, self-governing communi- 
ties, such as the people of States, either of the 
Union or about to enter it. 

"I send back one of the two copies received of 
the Granite Monthly and on the magazine you will 
find pencil marks opposite the passages^ on which I 
have ventured freely to comment. 
" Truly yours, 

"Jefferson Davis." 


Nathaniel Hawthorne and Jefferson Davis were 
two of his most intimate friends, men entirely 
different in standards, political ideas, and life. 
The friendship between Hawthorne and Pierce 
lasted until the death of the former. May 19, 1864, 
Pierce being with him much of the time during 
his last illness and was by his side when he passed 

Hawthorne in his "Life of Pierce" tells us : 
"The administration of Franklin Pierce presents 
the only instance in our history of the continuance 
of a cabinet for four years without any change in 
personnel. When it will be remembered that 
there was much dissimilarity, if not incongruity, 
of character among the members of the cabinet, 
some idea may be formed of the power over men 
that was possessed by Mr. Pierce. Chivalrous, 
generous, amiable, true to his friends and faith, 
frank and bold in the declaration of his opinions, 
he never deceived any one, and if treachery ever 
came near him, it would have stood abashed in 
the presence of his truth, his manliness, and his 
confiding simplicity." 

The old Hillsboro house stands to-day un- 
changed. By its side is a small building formerly 
used by the ex-President as a library and it still 



contains a part of his books, many volumes of 
which have been transferred to the library of the 
main house. 

This room Is a perfect treasure trove, for on the 
walls hang pictures of historic value, many of 
them painted at the order of the late President. 
The most valuable collection of all, however, are 
the autograph letters, the most important of 
which are written by Nathaniel Hawthorne and 
Jefferson Davis, letters that form a connecting 
link between the history of the Civil War and the 
life of men who made history. 










is a. 











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72 -G lu 














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i— ^ <1> 

2 ^ 













We turn to old houses as we turn to old books 
— for information — for inside old mansions is 
generally a wealth of furniture and china, the his- 
tory of which has a never-dying charm to the 
collector and the lover of the antique. These 
houses are rapidly passing away, and it is only now 
and then that we come across one where furniture 
may be found that covers the periods between the 
Chippendale and the Empire. 

One of these old houses, in which there is an 
especially rich collection of antiques, is found at 
Groveland, Massachusetts, and is known as the 
Savory house. Let us step over its threshold, 
and wander through its rooms, studying the furni- 
ture and the periods which they represent. 

Here we find many of the works of the great 
masters : the simple, dignified charm of Chippen- 
dale gives way to the more elaborate and delicate 
pieces of Hepplewhite and Sheraton, leading us on 



to the Adams period, and ending with the Empire. 
Examples of all these are seldom found under the 
same roof, and to the student of the antique, such a 
collection is far more instructive than pictured 
examples in books. 

Much of this old furniture was brought from 
over the seas about 1800, at a time when colonial 
homes were in vogue. Others came with the 
earliest settlers. These pieces, however, are rare, 
for the ships of that day had but limited capac- 
ity, fitted to bring only the bare necessities to 
furnish a home. Many of them were rare and 
unusual bits, and connected with them are stories 
of the past, which carry us back to the early 
struggles for existence in an untried land. 

The Peter Parker, or Savory house was built 
early in the eighteenth century. It is situated 
just back from the street, surrounded by well- 
laid-out grounds and has preserved intact all its 
original characteristics. 

The keynote in its construction is a dignified 
solidity. It represents an example of careful 
thought that gives to it an air of quiet elegance 
which is rarely seen, even in houses of this same 
type. It is to be numbered among the really few 
genuine old dwellings which date back to pre- 



Revolutionary days, — a veritable old home, com- 
bining in construction unusual architectural fea- 

The house differs much from the square houses 
of colonial time. It has a wing-like projection at 
one side and was designed with two front doors. 
This is a departure from the old-time custom of a 
central porch and is not without significance, for 
each door has its own special use. 

The main porch is in the central part of the 
house. It is a very handsome entrance, well 
proportioned, showing a fan light over the entrance 
door. It has for ornamentation a knocker of the 
ring type'. The second door in the ell was the 
family entrance. This opened upon a hall which 
led to the living-room. On the opposite side 
of the house is a small ell, showing domed windows 
and a handsomely carved entrance. At the rear 
is the orchard, where can still be seen some of the 
fruit trees that were planted when the house was 
built. The old-fashioned garden, with its box- 
borders and its wealth of old-time flowers so popu- 
lar in colonial days, lies at the right of the orchard. 

This estate was purchased by one Moses 
Parker, the great-grandfather of the present owner, 
in 1777, for the consideration of one thousand 



pounds sterling. The house has sheltered since 
then five generations of that name. During its 
early life, it was the haunt of most of the prominent 
men of that time, for the owner was a chosen leader 
in all town aif airs and was also considered one of the 
most prominent men of his day. There was a 
secret chamber in this house, shut oif from the 
main part of the building. It is spoken of in the 
old records and letters that are still treasured in the 
family. This was reached from the outside only, 
through a secret door, all traces of which have long 
since disappeared. In this room were held the 
most important of the many Masonic meetings 
of that day. The little group of men who formed 
this secret society, at the time of Groveland's 
settlement, chose this meeting-place on account of 
the privacy of the chamber and the thickness of the 
walls enclosing it. There were curious neighbors 
even in those days, and secret meetings were a 
necessity. Where could they better be hold than 
in this secluded room, beyond the bounds of unwel- 
come intruders } 

The main hallway is reached from the family 
entrance, — the company door opening into the 
large room used in the olden times only on special 
occasions, such as a marriage, death, or ministerial 


Plate LVIII. — Porch and Gatewa) , Savory House. 

Plate LIX. — Hallway, Savory House j Chamber, Savory House. 


calls. This hallway is unusual : it is panelled 
and painted white, showing at one side a quaintly 
designed staircase. The narrow stairs wind to 
the second-story floor by two turns, instead of one. 
At the foot of the stairs are two fine examples of 
the Chippendale type. These are chairs which 
formed a part of the wedding furniture of the 
great-great-grandmother Parker and were brought 
over from England by the emigrant ancestor. 
They are a rare type of Chippendale, showing the 
splat, diamond pierced, and handsome carving. 
They were made about the middle of the eighteenth 
century, before Chippendale began to lose favor or 
had any rivals in the field. 

On the first landing is a little light-stand, now so 
rarely seen, which was designed about 1765, and 
still holds the guest candles which were used in 
colonial days to light the family to bed. 

The old-time parlor opens out of the hallway. 
It is now in common use, being converted into the 
family sitting-room. On one side of the room is 
rare and choice woodwork with panel effect, broken 
in the center by a deep and wide fireplace, a domi- 
nating feature of this homelike room. The cheery 
glow of the great oak logs, as they bum on the 
seventeenth-century, steeple-topped andirons, fills 

[ 161 ] 


the imagination with pictures of the people who 
lived here many years ago. The furniture could 
no doubt unfold many an interesting story : the 
Dutch table in the center of the room, for instance, 
was a part of great-grandmother Parker's wedding 
furniture ; and the Hepplewhite card-table, de- 
signed in 1785, was a part of the first bride's 

There are Chippendale chairs, with carved 
rosettes, in low relief, vis-a-vis with a child's 
slat-back chair. The carpet, which has always 
been in this room, is one of the first ever laid in a 
Groveland home. 

The well-lighted living-room shows many quaint 
windows with small paned glass and broad sills. 
These, during the winter time, are used as con- 
servatories. Large, built-in cupboards, with glass 
doors, are filled with the rarest sets of old-time 
china. A full set of old Lowestoft, with the 
monogram of the bride, was imported from China, 
arriving just before the wedding. There is Staf- 
fordshire ware of the choicest kind, and a wealth of 
English glass. Not a piece has been broken since 
it was brought to the house, a century and a half 

. In this same room are many of the rarest bits of 



china to be found in all New England, while in the 
bookcases which line two sides of the room are 
many old books, some of which show the Parker 

Between the living-room and the dining-room is 
the den, where, on the shelves of a built-in cup- 
board, are wonderful pieces of old pewter. These 
date back to the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, a period when this metal was in vogue for 
household use. Many of the pieces bear the excise 
stamp, a cross and a crown, showing that they 
are of early make. The rarest pieces, however, 
show three distinct stamps. Fortunately, even 
though pewter went out of fashion, and was con- 
sequently melted, the family was one of the few 
who appreciated its worth, so that not even one 
piece has ever been destroyed. 

Rarely are found even in New England houses 
such a wealth of closets as are seen here. They 
have been carefully built to conform with the 
general breadth of construction and low stud 
that emphasize the interior finish of this house. In 
each one is a collection such as would make a 
connoisseur envious, for in handing down through 
the generations, there has been no division, a fact 
which gives the collections additional historic value. 



The most interesting room is the dining-room. 
Here the furnishing has never been changed. 
The sideboard is of the Empire period, and on it is 
shown wonderful old family silver, including some 
communion pieces of rare make. The chairs are of 
the Windsor type, painted white, with the excep- 
tion of one, an old pulpit chair. This was origi- 
nally used by an ancestor of the family, who was a 
pastor of the Groveland church. At the time of 
re-modelling, it was removed and brought to the 
Parker home. 

A very rare set of Canton ware is on the closet 
shelves. It differs from the usual Canton, and is 
said to be the only set of its kind to be found in 
America. The blue is much deeper and richer, 
and the pattern is unusual. This set was brought 
over as a wedding gift in one of the old Newbury- 
port ships, during the height of commercial pros- 

There is a peculiar charm and mystery to a house 
like this, which endears itself even to a stranger 
who steps over its threshold for "he first time. It 
is a revelation of colonial furnishing which is most 
interesting. The sturdy old house is both simple 
and dignified. It typifies in the best manner the 
construction of the early days ; the staunchness 




o . 

u :h 



V .2 





Plate LXI. — Parlor, Savory House ; I.i\ ing Room, 
Savory House. 


of its build is evinced in its frame and walls, which 
are as sound as when first laid. To-day none of 
the rooms are unused. The partition in the secret 
chamber has been torn down, so that it now con- 
nects with the other rooms. 

An unusual feature of the house is its many 
windows, which give it abundant light and sun- 
shine. Cheeriness lies in its open fireplaces, one 
of which is found in every room of the house. 
There is no elaboration in wood-carving, this being 
perfectly plain, though varying in shape and design. 

The chambers are also furnished with ancestral 
furniture, and in a room facing the south is a fine 
example of an old sleigh-bed, finished in mahogany 
veneer. The chairs are of Sheraton make, while 
the little low table was designed about the middle 
of the seventeenth century. In every chamber in 
the house four-posters are still seen, some of which 
are Field beds, while others have testers. Each 
room is kept as near as possible as it was when 
first occupied by the Parker family. 

In the attic under the eaves is a veritable treas- 
ure house. Innumerable hair trunks, studded 
with brass-headed nails, are filled with beautiful 
silken damask gowns, camel's-hair shawls, and 
rare laces, which were once worn by the brides. 

[ i6s ] 


In one of them lies Lady Catherine, a most won- 
derful doll, dressed in the fashion of colonial days. 
Her gown of fine white mull is yellowed by age, 
and, as you take her out, she holds in her hand a 
letter which tells her name and age. It is over a 
century ago since she came into existence, but she 
has been so carefully preserved that she is in per- 
fect condition. 

The exact date of the erection of this house is 
not definitely known. It ante-dated the Revolu- 
tionary war, and at the time of its purchase by 
Mr. Parker, in 1777, it was considered by the resi- 
dents of the town as an old mansion. In build, 
it resembles the seventeenth century houses, while 
in design it is unique and, save for its colonial 
porches and fences, might have belonged to an 
earlier period. It stands to-day a landmark of the 
old town, and the touch of time has not marred it 
with the air of age. 




There is no more fascinating study, both for 
historian and architect, than that of colonial 
houses : homes that represent an epoch-making 
period in our country's history. They are the 
dividing line between the early days and the period 
when we ceased to be colonists, the time when we 
secured a firm footing in the land we have made our 

One of these old houses stands not many miles 
from Concord, New Hampshire. This is the Stark 
mansion at Dunbarton, a colonial house which is 
of especial interest for the reason that under its 
roof are gathered the relics of five famous families : 
the Starks, McNeils, Wentworths, Morrises, and 
Pierces. This house is one of the few old land- 
marks which still remain in the possession of the 
descendants original patentees. More than almost 
any other house which has historic connections, 
this one has been made famous in American history 



through two of its owners, — General John Stark 
and his son, Major Caleb Stark. 

One leaves the little railroad station at East 
Weir, New Hampshire and drives along country 
roads to visit the historic place, which is situated 
about a mile from the heart of the country village. 
The grant itself comprises over one hundred acres, 
in the midst of a fertile country, and includes 
woodland and meadow, orchards and gardens, 
the latter in the immediate vicinity of the house. 
The home lot is in the very center of the estate, 
and here the old-time details have been most 
carefully preserved. 

The grounds are entered through a wide road, 
lined on either side by stately trees, whose branches, 
meeting overhead, form a shaded driveway. Just 
before the boundary line is reached, one sees at the 
right-hand side of the road a small wooden struc- 
ture. This is the little old schoolhouse, where in 
the days long gone by the neighbors received 
their early education. As a memento of those 
early days, it is still kept carefully preserved, but 

The fine country drive stretches on ahead, 
winding in and out under the leafy archway. At a 
sharp turn of the road, is seen at the left, ensconced 














among the trees, a picturesque old mill. This was 
erected in 1760 for the grinding of grain, being the 
fulfillment of one condition of the grant. Here 
the farmers from far and near brought their loads 
of corn to be ground, and it ran uninterruptedly 
until 1889, when its voice was stilled. The stream 
which once ran merrily over the rocks, turning the 
great wheel, is now silent, while the mill is fast 
falling into decay. Nature has done much to make 
this one of the most picturesque parts of the estate. 
Keeping to the left, a sweep of the road takes us 
to the old cemetery, laid out, as was the custom of 
the early days, on every large estate. It is sur- 
rounded by an iron fence and is fringed with trees, 
among which is a staunch willow which was brought 
as a slip from the grave of Napoleon I. It was 
fittingly planted here, and taking kindly to its 
new home, lends additional interest to the historic 

Inside the cemetery all of the Stark family lie 
buried, with the exception of the emigrant ances- 
tor, Archibald Stark. Passing through the gates 
and up a flight of stone steps, a second enclosure is 
reached. Here lies Caleb Stark, so famous in 
American history, and over his grave a monument 
is erected to his memory. 



Leaving the cemetery and following the wide 
stretch of road which winds in and out, with stone 
walls on either side, we drive through the heart of a 
woodland in the direction of the house. The road 
was bounded by monarchs of the forest, — tall, lofty 
trees, many of which bear the mark of the broad 
arrow and were known as " King's Trees," being 
marked in this manner in the early days, when 
they were set apart for use in the royal shipyard. 
Fortunately the king was cut down by One greater 
than an earthly forester, and they still stand to-day 
in all their glory, — monuments of the past and 
ornaments of the present. 

In and out winds the wide avenue, between the 
drooping branches of these fine old trees, until it 
reaches the colonial mansion, which is a full half 
mile from the wooded entrance. The house is 
hidden from view, until the home plot is reached, 
by the dense foliage. It stands in the center of a 
large, open space showing fine lawns and old- 
fashioned gardens, bordered by more venerable 
trees, some of which are worth more than passing 
notice. For instance, a certain black walnut, 
which Major Stark transplanted from Ohio to its 
new home, took root here and is now grown to be 
one of the finest trees on the estate. Another, a 



beautiful elm, was set out by Miss Charlotte Stark, 
the last owner of the grant. Ancient buttonwoods, 
veterans scarred and faithful, still stand as sen- 
tinels to guard the house, while mulberry trees 
shade the opposite side of the road. At the rear 
of the house is the garden, bright with old-fashioned 
flowers- and fragrant with the odor of the blossoms 
our grandmothers loved. 

Across the street are the barns. Here is stored 
many an interesting relic, including a saddle with 
silver mountings that was used by President 
Franklin Pierce during his term of service in the 
Mexican War. In the corner is the queer, old- 
fashioned, two-wheeled chaise used by Madam 
Stark for their annual drive to Portsmouth. In 
the house is still preserved the old-fashioned green 
calash which was worn by Miss Harriet Stark on 
this all-important trip. 

The house was erected in 1785 by Major Caleb 
Stark and is known as the Mansion House. It was 
modelled after the manor houses of England, 
combining stately grandeur and picturesque repose. 
It is built of wood, two stories and a half in height, 
showing dormer windows, a gambrel roof, and a 
large, two-storied ell. 

Everywhere an old-time atmosphere prevails 


— from the time one enters the grounds until the 
front door is reached. This entrance door is a 
curious one, being three inches thick and bearing a 
handsome brass lock and knocker which were 
brought over from England by Major Stark. 
Over the door is a row of old bull's-eyes, specimens 
of early American glass, green in coloring and rough 
inside where they were taken from the molding 

The door swings open on large, wrought-iron 
strap hinges, which extend two feet each way, and 
one enters the long hallway. This apartment 
divides the house into two parts and ends in a 
duplicate door at the rear, which opens upon the 
old-fashioned garden. During the summer-time 
this door is left open, and here, in the cool recess of 
the hall, accompanied by the droning of bees and 
the sweet scents from the posy beds in the garden 
below, it is a favorite custom to serve tea in the 
long, warm, summer afternoons. 

Flowers, books, old-fashioned furniture, and 
pictures of the choicest are everywhere. A fine 
portrait of General John Stark, painted in 1830 
by Samuel F. B. Morse, the inventor of the tele- 
graph, is hung on the wall at the right. Facing 
the door another beautiful portrait is seen. This 


Plate LXIW — ■ Hallway, Stark Mansion ; Parlor, Stark 




is of Miss Charlotte Stark and was done by Jane 
Stuart, the daughter of Gilbert Stuart. A third 
picture, which is a fitting companion for the others, 
is a portrait of the great American statesman, 
Daniel Webster, done by Lawson. 

Curious old prints, priceless in value, have their 
appropriate places on the wall, and beside them are 
queer old miniatures. Hepplewhite tables and 
chairs are artistically arranged to form the fur- 
nishing of this old hall, while the crowning piece of 
furniture is the old roll-top desk, which has 
drawers underneath. This, as did many of the 
other ornaments and furnishings found in this old 
homestead, belonged originally to Robert Morris, 
the financier of the Revolution. 

The hall opens at the right into an old-fashioned 
parlor, where hangs a portrait of the mother of 
President Pierce. On the table is a Baskerville 
Bible, in two volumes, illustrated by valuable 
prints by old masters and also once owned by the 
"Great Financier." A set of Dresden china, 
originally in the possession of the first French 
Minister to America, and presented by him on 
his return to France to Mr. Morris, is kept here. 
A large mirror, once the property of Robert 
Morris, fine old paintings, including those of 



Governor and Mrs. Pierce, and of Lieutenant John 
and Mrs. McNeil, painted over a century ago, a 
brace of flint-lock pistols carried by General Stark 
at the battle of Bennington, a magnificent, gold- 
headed cane with the inscription "Robert Morris, 
from his friend, John Hancock" are among the 
relics shown in the interesting room. 

Opening out from the parlor is the den of Mr. 
Charles Morris Stark, the present owner, who is of 
the sixth generation, his maternal grandfather 
being Robert Morris. This room is also an inter- 
esting apartment, exemplifying his life as a sports- 

Opposite the parlor is the library, which is fitted 
with book-cases filled with queer and valuable old 
books, while cosy seats are placed in the windows. 
The hearth of stone, as originally made, is still 
shown in the fireplace. In this room is placed a 
cane given to Major Stark for valiant conduct in 
the defense of Fort William, and another, made 
from the bone of a whale and headed with ivory, 
is also kept here. Statuettes in bronze of Napoleon 
Bonaparte, brought from France and presented to 
Major Stark by Lafayette, as well as General 
McNeil's mahogany desk, are other mementoes 
of the past. 



Everywhere historic bits are displayed. Espe- 
cially noteworthy are a fine old mezzotint of the 
Duke of Wellington, and one of the Morris mirrors. 

The bright and sunny dining-room, which leads 
off the library, ends with a wide fireplace, over 
which are hung portraits, painted from life, of 
Daniel Webster and Jackson. The house is filled 
with the most beautiful pieces of old colonial 
furniture, a rare old sideboard and grandfather's 
clock, which were the property of Governor Pierce, 
being found in the dining-room. Both of these 
stood originally in the governor's house at Hills- 
boro. New Hampshire. 

Opposite the sideboard is a wonderful old wine 
cooler which belonged to Robert Morris, while 
above it hangs a speaking likeness of the man 
himself, painted by Gilbert Stuart. This is indeed 
a rare and beautiful treasure, as is the framed 
letter below it, which is addressed to Mrs. Morris, 
bearing the date 1790, and signed by both George 
and Martha Washington. 

Rare old china, a full set of Tokio, together with 
cut glass presented to Governor Pierce when he 
was the chief magistrate of New Hampshire, are 
among the treasures in this room. Throughout 
this old house there is not a piece of furniture or a 



bit of china that is not rich in historic associations. 
Every room has its large old fireplace, fitted with 
old brass and iron fenders and accessories, each of 
unusual shape. The hearths are filled with birch 
logs and pine cones. 

Ascending the odd old staircase at the end of the 
entrance hall, which winds by low treads to the 
second-story floor, one finds, lining the walls, 
wonderful old ancestral portraits, not only of 
inestimable value, but of great public interest. 

There are several chambers in this upper story, 
one of which is of special note, since General 
Lafayette slept here during his visit to Major 
Stark in 1824. All the furniture in this room, 
including the high four-poster, is the same that 
furnished the room when visited by the distin- 
guished guest. It has been left unchanged, and 
is held to-day in great reverence by the survivors 
of the Stark family. 

The house has always been In the family since 
its erection and was occupied by Charlotte Stark 
previous to its coming into the possession of the 
present owners. Miss Charlotte was one of Major 
Stark's favorite daughters. 

This house, more than most colonial houses, is 
of abounding interest. Everywhere within its 



four walls are treasures which could not be found 
elsewhere. It was the home of the brave Indian 
fighter, John Stark, the friend of Washington, 
and later on of Major Caleb Stark, the friend of 
Lafayette, who retired atthecloseof the Revolution, 
at the age of twenty-four. Few, if any colonial 
mansions are filled with such veritable treasures, 
— and there are still fewer houses where from five 
distinguished families have been gathered relics 
of such extraordinary interest, as in this home of 
long ago. 




One of the most distinguished of Haverhill 
families was and is the Saltonstall family, who are 
first mentioned in the history of that town through 
Nathaniel, who was born at Ipswich and who 
came to Haverhill and married Elizabeth, the 
daughter of John Ward, December 28, 1663 ; 
from this union are descended all the people of that 
name in America. Saltonstall is spoken of by 
Sewall in his diary, where he tells of " Son Salton- 
stall comforting me on account of his father-in- 
law's health ;" and Whittier, in a supposed journey 
of his heroine, tells of a visit to this man who later 
on lived in a fine house. 

Saltonstall was in command of the militia in 
Newbury and many adjoining towns and is men- 
tioned as among the most popular and well prin- 
cipled military men. He was judge of the Inferior 
Court of Pleas for Essex until his death. Samuel 
Sewell, who gossiped about everybody, gives us a 



little glimpse of this noted man, who was appointed 
one of the judges for the trial of witches, but who 
would not sit upon the case, being very much 
dissatisfied with the proceedings. 

His grandson Richard became a judge of the 
Superior Court in 1736, and it is of him that the 
celebrated Samuel Moody speaks. 

" Lynde, Dudley, Remington and Saltonstall 
With Sewall meeting at the judgment hall, 
Making a learned, wise and faithful set 
Of Godlike judges by God's counsel met." 

Judge Saltonstall had three sons : Colonel 
Richard, who lived at Buttonwood, a loyalist and 
refugee; Leverett, who died in the British army, 
and Doctor Nathaniel, who was descended through 
his mother from the patriotic Cooke family in 
Boston. It was he who built the house which is 
now situated on the border of Lake Saltonstall in 
Haverhill, Massachusetts. 

This mansion is one of the historic houses in 
Massachusetts. It is a large, square dwelling, 
painted yellow with green blinds, showing at the 
front a porch ornamented with dentation. The 
house has never been out of the possession of the 
Saltonstall family. 

1 179 ] 


He was a descendant of Sir Richard, who came 
to America with Winthrop in the Arabella and 
helped to form the settlement at Watertown, 
bringing with him cattle and servants, showing 
thereby that he was a man of property. 

Nathaniel Saltonstall, who built this house, was 
sent to Harvard after his father's death and was 
graduated in 1766. He devoted himself to the 
study of medicine during the early Revolutionary 
movements of the Stamp Act Riot and the Tea 
Party. Returning to Haverhill against the wishes 
of his family, he began the practice of medicine 
in his native town. Later, he enlisted as a volunteer 
in an artillery company, being the only one of the 
family who espoused the colonists' cause, but more 
interested in establishing a comfortable practice 
than in war, he soon resigned and continued his 

In 1778 he married the daughter of Samuel 
White. His father-in-law presented him with a 
lot of land on Merrimack Street, and here he built 
his residence, at a cost of three thousand dollars, 
which in that time gave him the handsomest 
house in the vicinity. This land abutted on the 
river, and was one hundred and fifty feet deep, laid 
out in terraced grassland and garden. On July 



24, 1788, a contract was made between Doctor 
Saltonstall and Marsh and Carleton, joiners, to 
build the house, to be completed on or before the 
first of July of the following year. 

In the day book of the young physician, opened 
in 1774, we note that many of his patients worked 
out their indebtedness on the house. One Enoch 
Page gave work for nine days, and also helped out 
upon the doctor's flax. David Bryant brought him 
five thousand bricks, and among the many others 
who paid in product was Joseph Whittier, the 
grandfather of the Quaker poet, who brought a 
jug of hay, six pounds of butter, and one and a 
half bushels of oats, "in full payment of my bill, 
one pound, five shillings, and eleven pence." 

We also find an entry in the same note-book 
that in 1774 he received for services rendered in 
the town proper a shilling. If he had to cross the 
river to Bradford, in 1800, it cost thirty-three cents, 
and in 1812 the charge was raised to fifty cents. 

The house v/as wonderfully furnished with fine 
old furniture, china, and glass, much of which has 
descended in the family, and is owned to-day by 
the present mistress, Mrs. Gurdon Saltonstall 

In 1806, Doctor Saltonstall's daughter married 


one John Varnum, who was the leading lawyer of 
the town, and was given as her marriage portion a 
handsome outfit, a highly respectable sum of 
money, and one warming-pan, one silver teapot, 
one sugar pitcher, one cream pitcher, one jug, 
twelve silver spoons, and one brass kettle. Many 
of these articles are still to be seen in the old home. 

Sally Saltonstall married her neighbor, Isaac R. 
Howe, who was said to be descended from the old- 
fashioned stock, with "beauty of conduct" which 
was, alas, even then a little old-fashioned. 

As years went by, Haverhill became more thickly 
settled, and the estate grew so valuable that it 
was necessary to move the house. This was no 
easy matter in those days, and in order that it 
might be more conveniently accomplished, the 
structure was sawed in two, the separate parts 
being carefully boxed in and moved by oxen. 
The timbers, which were brought from England, 
were so strong that although moved for several 
miles, not a single part of the frame was started. 
As the oxen tolled up the long hill near the Pen- 
tucket Club, they became stalled, and more oxen 
had to be brought before the building could be 
finally landed in its present position. 

It stands back from the road, facing Lake 






















Saltonstall, in the midst of green fields, over which 
are scattered beautiful trees and flower gardens. 
Entrance is at the front through a colonial porch, 
supported by dignified columns and showing 
dentation, which is repeated in the roof-line of the 
house. The entrance door, with its ponderous brass 
knocker, swings back on its long strap hinges, 
and reveals a wide hallway which extends entirely 
through the house to a second door, which leads to 
a garden beyond. This door shows plainly the 
mark of the saw where it was cut apart at the time 
of moving, and the scars of the joining are shown 
with great pride by the present owners as evidence 
of this achievement. > 

At the right of the entrance is the staircase, 
showing the spiral newel post and carved balusters 
of the early period. The wainscoting is a feature 
of this central hall, as is the arch midway between 
the two entrance doors. A grandfather's clock 
ticks off the time, and beyond is a wonderful old 
dresser with a rare collection of pewter, showing 
many pieces that cannot be duplicated in this 
country. There is enough of this metal collected 
to set an entire dinner table, reminding us of the 
days when it was used extensively in this country, 
before the introduction of china and glass. 



Opening out of this room at the right is the den, 
where a wonderful Franklin stove is used for 
heating. All around the room are pieces of furni- 
ture which are not only historic but have much 
intrinsic value. 

Opposite is the drawing-room, with its let-in 
window-seats and narrow, panelled, wooden shut- 
ters, locked at night and serving, if need be, instead 
of curtains. Many of the chairs found in this 
room were covered with wonderful specimens of 
handiwork done by the wife of Elisha Cooke, one of 
Doctor Saltonstall's ancestors, while much of the 
furniture came over, as did the timbers, from the 
mother country, for the first occupant of the 

The dining-room is, perhaps, one of the most 
attractive rooms in the house. It is well lighted 
by small-paned windows and contains Hepple- 
white chairs and side-table. At one side stands a 
sideboard which was originally in the possession of 
Governor John Leverett, who was Governor of 
Massachusetts Bay Colony at the time of King 
Philip's War and who was a friend of Cromwell's, 
and created baronet and knight by Charles II in 
1676. Governor Leverett was an ancestor of the 
present owner. On this sideboard are many pieces 



of old family silver, Including a tankard which was 
also owned by the governor. 

The fireplace is a true colonial one, showing 
blue and white tiles two deep, each illustrative of 
a Bible story. The upper hall has undergone a 
change since it was built through the introduction 
of low, built-in bookcases. Here the furniture 
includes Chippendale chairs of a design that was 
very popular all through this period, being of beauti- 
ful proportions and showing fine workmanship. 

Chambers open off the hallway, each of which 
contains a great deal of rare furniture. There are 
the Field beds with their drapings of white, some 
showing testers of 1800. Modern wall-paper and 
frieze, as well as the draperies, have been intro- 
duced within the last few years, but are in harmony 
with the old-fashioned furniture, many pieces of 
which were inherited from the maternal side of the 
family, being the property, originally, of Middleton 
Cooke and also of Mary Cooke, third daughter of 
Judge Saltonstall and great-grandaughter of Gov- 
ernor Leverett. 

The Cookes were a noted family and eminent 
politicians. Elisha Cooke, before mentioned, was 
an assistant under the old government, holding 
for forty years many positions of public trust ; he 



was also a noted orator and politician, a member 
of the General Court and of the Council, and a 
leader of the Public Party. 

The Saltonstalls also were a distinguished family, 
Dudley being in command of the Continental 
navy and captain of the Alfred in Hopkin's fleet 
in February, 1776, while Gurdon Saltonstall, a 
governor of Connecticut from 1707 until his death, 
was distinguished as an orator and statesman, 
and bequeathed to Harvard University one thou- 
sand pounds to students studying for the ministry. 

Singularly enough, since the first class graduated 
from Harvard, there has always been a Saltonstall 
connected with the college. This covers a period 
of over two hundred and fifty years, and during this 
time not one of these men has ever done anything 
to disgrace his Alma Mater. 

Pieces of furniture associated with all three of 
these distinguished families are to be found in this 
house, many of them belonging to the old governor 
and handed down in direct line to the present 

Perhaps the most interesting piece of all is an 
old desk which was once owned by Daniel Webster, 
who at one time was a law partner of the late Mr. 
Gurdon Howe's grandfather. It is filled with 


Plate LXVIII. 

— Two Views of the Dining Room, 
Saltonstall House. 

Plate LXIX. — Chambers in the Saltonstall House. 


valuable papers, almost all bearing upon different 
business transactions in the great statesman's 

This was brought from Boston at the time that 
Mr. Howe removed his law office from that city. 
One of these documents, a note characteristic of 
Daniel Webster, is still treasured. 

"United States Senate, June 3d, . . . 
"Dear Sir: 

"I arrived here last evening and found all well. 
One of the latter trials, as it happened, comes on 
this very day, or is expected to. This may delay 
me, — otherwise I expect to be at home on Satur- 
day. A note enclosed, as this falls due the 9th. 
Please do the needful. 

"D. Webster." 

The house has stood practically unchanged since 
the day of building, some slight changes having 
been made, but not enough to mar the colonial 
architecture. It is large and square, three stories 
in height, of simple, dignified proportions, and show- 
ing colonial details. The windows are the small- 
paned ones that were used in the long ago, with 
the exception of one of stained glass, which has 



been introduced over the entrance porch. The 
house is one which reflects the period, — ^ a notable 
mansion filled with interesting colonial relics which 
formerly were owned by some of the most promi- 
nent men in our country. 




Because of the distinctive place that houses of 
the middle period hold in the present architectural 
world, architects from all over the country are now 
looking for specimens of these dwellings to which 
they may turn for copy. The master builders of 
that time knew well their art, and their work is 
characteristic of us as a nation. Houses of that 
period, while comparatively similar in type to 
those of the old world, yet show enough variation 
to make them interesting, and stand in favorable 
comparison. There is the large, square house, 
three stories in height, which came into vogue early 
in the nineteenth century. Then there is the dou- 
ble-decked house with Its roof ornamentations, 
and the plain house of the purest colonial type, an 
illustration of the latter being the Dalton house at 
Newburyport, Massachusetts. 

This house stands on the principal street in 
Newburyport, a seaport city, where in the days of 



commerical prosperity ships lined the wharves, as 
they came and went in their traffic with foreign 
lands. Those were the days when merchants 
made and lost fortunes, the days of golden pros- 
perity and of flashes of romance. To these days 
we turn as a most interesting period of our coun- 
try's architectural history. 

In fancy we see the Newburyport of that day, 
situated on the banks of the Merrimac River, a 
breezy old town propped up on a granite base. Its 
principal street, three miles in length, overlooked 
the quays, where in the olden days vessels arrived 
from Russia or Antwerp or perhaps from the West 
Indies, laden with rich furs, strange wooden shoes, 
guava jellies, wonderful old shawls, and many 
other exports that were piled high on the now 
silent wharves. 

On this the principal street stands the Dalton 
house, two and a half stories in height, with gam- 
brel roof and a wide, inviting porch — a mansion 
that suggests the days when money was piled high 
in the coffers and when the prosperous men flaunted 
their wealth, spending it freely, not only in fre- 
quent entertainments but in equipages that were 
the envy of the less fortunate townsmen. There 
were no more beautiful or expensive carriages than 





Plate LXXI. — Porch, Daltoii House. 


those owned by Tristram Dalton, who succeeded 
his father, Michael Dalton, in the ownership of the 

When the mansion was first built, there was a 
spacious estate in keeping with the house instead 
of the limited grounds that we see to-day. At 
the rear, just back of the courtyard, were large, 
well-built stables, in which were sheltered fine 
horses. Beyond, were gardens and grass lands, for 
when the estate was first planned, it consisted of 
three acres of land bounded westerly on Green- 
leaf's Lane, southerly on Nathan Hale's land, 
easterly on Newman's land, and northeast or 
northerly on the land of James Pierson. 

Michael Dalton, who built the house in 1720, 
was a great-grandson of Philemon Dalton, who came 
to New England in 1635. Michael was very 
ambitious, and when quite young he left his father's 
home to engage in a seafaring life. He made many 
successful voyages and augmented his wealth 
to such a degree that he added greatly to the 
family possessions. Later on he became a prom- 
inent merchant, and married in 1733 one Mary 
Little. His means continuing to increase, he 
became interested in agricultural pursuits and 
bought a country estate at Pipestave Hill at West 



Newbury. Just before his death, he deeded his 
house to his son Tristram Dalton, who became a 
prominent figure in American history. 

Tristram Dalton was graduated from Harvard 
in 1755. There is still seen in the house a portrait 
supposed to have been painted at about that time. 
One of his closest intimates was a classmate, John 
Adams, their friendship ending only with death. 
Young Dalton began studying law in Salem but 
afterwards entered business with his father; 
in 1758 he married Ruth Hooper, the daughter of 
Robert Hooper, a rich merchant of Marblehead, 
familiarly known as "King" Hooper on account 
of his great wealth. Until within the last few 
years there was a pane of glass in one of the win- 
dows, on which was written with a diamond the 
name of Ruth Hooper Dalton. It is still pre- 
served and from letters kept is shown to be a per- 
fect facsimile of her handwriting. 

During his life, he became devoted to public 
interests and was a very prominent citizen of the 
town, the State, and nation. He served on numer- 
ous town committees, was a delegate to the Provin- 
cial Congress, a representative of the General 
Court, a Speaker of the House, a member of the 
State Senate and a delegate to the Constitutional 

[ 192 1 


Convention of 1788, being a zealous advocate of the 
adoption of the Constitution. He was ever active 
and energetic in his many eiforts to reconcile polit- 
ical differences. So successful was his political 
life that after a long and sharply contested battle 
he was elected senator from 1 789-1 791. 

He came of Irish descent and was considered one 
of the most learned, wealthy, and influential 
persons in the country. He was a near and con- 
fidential friend of President Washington, who 
induced him to remove his household goods to the 
city of Washington, foreseeing that it would 
eventually become one of the grandest cities in the 
country. There is a portrait of Dalton painted 
by Blackburn, that is still kept in the house, which 
shows him tall and well-formed, with fine, clear 
complexion and smooth, open brow. His dress 
was after the fashion of the time, with short clothes 
and knee breeches, coat with standing collar and 
broad deep lapels faced with silk, white satin 
waistcoat, ruffled shirt bosom, and deep lace cuffs. 
That he was fond of dress is shown from the 
picture. His hair was puffed on either side, giving 
him an appearance of dignity and age, and making 
it difficult to believe that the portrait is of one so 
young. He was a fine specimen of a gentleman 



of the old school and was well fitted to take a lead- 
ing part in the best New England societies. The 
distinguishing traits of his personality continued 
all through his life, for even as late as 1816 we read 
of him as erect, firm, and showing a fine presence. 
He was a man of emotions rather than of ideas, the 
warmth and sincerity of his feelings lifting him 
above all personal considerations and giving him 
that elevation and nobility of character that 
appeals so strongly to one's affections. 

At that period the Dalton house was noted for 
its hospitality, and many men of national and 
world-wide fame, whose portraits hang upon the 
walls to-day, were entertained therein. Stately 
hospitality continually opened the door of this 
dwelling, to which had been brought from the 
treasure-laden ships embroidered shawls, sheer 
muslins, and bright silks for the ladies, as well as 
rich furniture for the house. During the Daltons' 
life here, their house was a perfect treasure-house 
of wonderfully fine old furniture, now generally 
scattered among the descendants ; but there are 
still kept in the mansion some wonderfully fine 
specimens of Hepplewhite chairs, originally owned 
by the Daltons. 

They were lavish entertainers, these Daltons, 


and it was here that Washington came during a 
visit to Newburyport. He later writes that he 
partook of an early breakfast at the home of his 
friend, Honorable Tristram Dalton, on State Street. 
While he was being entertained at this meal, an 
imperative voice was heard in the hallway demand- 
ing entrance to the dining-room. Washington 
recognized the voice of his old servitor, Toifee, and 
requested that he be admitted. The most cordial 
greeting took place between the two, and the old 
commander gave to Toffee a silver piece which the 
servant wore about his neck all the rest of his life. 
It must have been an early breakfast, for Washing- 
ton left town at eight o'clock in the morning, cross- 
ing the river at Salisbury, two miles above. This 
was no uncommon deviation for the president, as 
we find that while visiting New England he was 
often entertained at the houses of private citizens 
and personal friends. 

In addition to George Washington, President 
Monroe, Talleyrand, Jefferson in 1784, Lafayette 
in 1824, John Quincy Adams, and John Hancock 
were also among the personages of note who 
accepted the hospitality of this house. 

On September 13, 1775, Colonel Benedict Arnold, 
at the head of his troops, left Cambridge, dining at 



Mr. Tristram Dalton's on the Monday following, 
before sailing from Newburyport to aid in the 
capture of Quebec. The fleet consisted of eleven 
sailing vessels, which carried eleven hundred men. 

In those days lavish wealth blazed in the town, 
and the owner of the Dalton house made the people 
sigh as he drove into town or to his country-seat at 
Pipestave Hill in his white satin lined coach drawn 
by six prancing white horses, with four outriders in 
white livery. Inside were such guests as Talleyrand, 
George Peabody,and even that eccentric personage, 
Lord Timothy Dexter, who had the ambition to 
figure in genteel society and cultivated as much as 
possible the society of Dalton. His coaches and 
open phaetons drawn by two or three spans of 
horses with the liveried outriders, after the style 
of the nobility of Europe, were more magnificent 
than were those of any other citizen of the town. 
His sideboards were weighted with silver, and his 
chests filled with money, for the incoming ships 
brought back great bags of gold realized by the 
sale of cargoes in foreign lands, and large amounts 
of money were kept in the house by the merchant 
princes of that day. 

In addition to his large house in Newburyport, 
and his country-seat at Pipestave Hill, Mr. Dalton 



had his fishing station, with boats and outfits, on 
the banks of the Merrimac, while his hunting- 
lodge was in the upper woods of West Newbury. 
All his surroundings were of a princely nature, 
befitting the fortune that he owned. 

Many were the weddings that took place here, 
among them being that of Mary, the eldest daugh- 
ter of Tristram Dalton, who, upon her marriage to 
Honorable Leonard White of Haverhill, "drove 
out" in the large white satin coach drawn by six 
prancing white horses with four white-liveried 
outriders. Later on, her sister Ruth married 
Louis Deblois, a prominent Boston merchant, 
leaving her home in the same coach. 

The house itself is one of the best preserved 
buildings of that day. It has never deteriorated, 
always being occupied by people of wealth. With 
the growth of building in the town, the estate has 
become reduced, until there is now very little of the 
original tract left. The courtyard has disap- 
peared, as have the expensive stables, for with the 
dwindling of wealth the need of them has vanished. 
The house, which was built in 1720, is of gambrel- 
roof type and a fine example of that period. The 
blinds are the same ones that were hung at the time 
when Michael Dalton built the house. Its fa9ade, 



the lines of which are dignified, seems beaming with 

Entrance to the house is through a colonial 
porch of ample dimensions, showing dentation, 
which is supported by Corinthian columns ; the 
hall is lighted by a fan-light and sidelights on 
either side the wide, hospitable door. The ex- 
terior is painted white, as it always has been. 
A feature of the house is the wide clapboards. 
The original small-paned windows have been 
kept, so that the exterior remains practically 
unchanged. Who the carver was is unknown. It 
must be remembered that in those days ship 
carvers were employed to work upon the orna- 
mentation of the ships, so that it was probably 
some one employed by the Daltons on their vessels 
who designed and carried out the carving of the 
woodwork, both on the exterior and in the interior. 

The entrance door gives into a large hall with 
wonderfully fine panellings on either side. Each 
of the three balusters has a different design. The 
stairs are box stairs leading by low treads to a 
wide landing, where a colonial window admits a 
flood of light to the hall. A second low flight 
of stairs leads to the second story, where the hall 
corresponds with the lower one. It is here the 



















Hepplewhite chairs are found and also a wonder- 
ful picture of the late Tristram Dalton, painted 
later in life than the one already mentioned. The 
woodwork in this house is considered the finest 
to be found in any house in Newburyport. The 
hall is finished in panel effects, but the door-cas- 
ings and the fireplaces in many instances show 
rich hand-carving. 

The house contains twenty-five rooms, sixty 
cupboards, and ample halls, and yet even then was 
scarcely large enough to accommodate the Dalton 
family, their many guests, and their servants. 
Many of the latter were slaves, who in those days 
were kept in the household. One of them was 
buried on Burying Hill in Newburyport, and on a 
stone placed at the head of his grave is carved 
"Faithful Pompey." 

The living-room, or drawing-room as it was 
called in those days, is a large, square room that is 
at the left of the hallway. In this room are shown 
the pictures of many of the distinguished guests 
who in former years were visitors at the house and 
intimate friends of the owner. The fireplace is a 
large one, the woodwork hand-carved, and in the 
large panels above has been inserted the Dalton 
coat of arms. The windows are recessed, showing 



window-seats ; each one has the hinged shutter 
such as was used in the early days for security, 
being closed and barred every night. These are 
still used in this same way in this mansion to- 
day. A feature of this room is the fine wood- 
carving shown in the casing of the door. At one 
side, hanging on the wall, is a scrap of the old 
wall-paper that once adorned the wall. It is of 
seventeenth-century pattern, with garlands, and 
is finished in light colors and pink groundwork, 
a delicate and most unusual wall-paper. This is 
the only room in the house, so far as is known, 
which was covered with the old-time wall-paper. 

At the right are double parlors which may have 
been used for dining-room, or living-room and 
dining-room, combined. Here are also found won- 
derful panellings, but very little of the elaborate 
hand-carving. All of the wood in this house, as 
in most of the houses of the same period, is of 
white pine, for this wood is considered one of the 
best wearing kinds that has ever grown. The 
timbers are of solid oak and are as staunch as they 
were in the days when the house was built. In 
these rooms have been entertained the dignitaries 
of the land, while in the parlor were celebrated 
the marriages of the daughters of the household. 

[ 200] 


The mansion has an atmosphere of attraction 
and spaciousness rarely found in houses of this de- 
scription. It is^ shown in the abundance of light 
and in the arrangement of the rooms, which have 
been planned for elaborate entertaining. At the 
rear of the house are the servants' quarters. The 
large, old-fashioned fireplace, where in former days 
the cooking for the Dalton family was done, is now 
a thing of the past, modern appliances having 
replaced the spit and the large brick oven. The 
ell of the house, a part of which was removed, was 
originally nearly as large as the main portion. It 
was once used exclusively for servants' quarters, 
and even then was barely large enough for the 
enormous retinue that was needed to run the 
Dalton household. 

Up-stairs the rooms correspond to the large 
ones downstairs, with the exception that on the 
right-hand side a partition divides what was 
formerly a large room into two smaller ones. 
These rooms still show the same fine panelling, 
the old-time brass locks and hardware that were 
features of the house at the time of its building. 
They have never been replaced by modern fixtures. 

The third story was used for guests' rooms, the 
slope of the roof being eliminated by boarding the 



gambrel roof so as to make square chambers. 
The old chimneys, six feet square, have been taken 
down, and small ones have replaced them. The 
railing of this house, which was originally a two 
decker, has been removed and while not materially 
changing its appearance, still gives it a little differ- 
ent look. An iron fence has been substituted 
for the old paling fence which once enclosed the 
grounds, while new posts have replaced the old 
ones. The courtyard is grassed over, also the space 
between house and fence, and a wide, paved stone 
walk leads to the entrance porch. In 1796 this 
house was sold, together with Dalton's other resi- 
dences, after he had been defeated for re-election, 
a serious disappointment, although his letters writ- 
ten at the time do not show any signs of anger or 

The Pipestave Hill Great Farm residence was 
sold for thirty-seven hundred pounds, while 
his land on State Street brought a much lower 
sum. The house was practically cleared of all the 
Dalton furniture, the household goods being care- 
fully packed and shipped on a sailing vessel bound 
to Georgetown, District of Columbia. During 
the voyage the vessel was wrecked, and a part of his 
household belongings were thus lost. Since then 



the house has passed into various hands. For- 
tunately the different owners venerated the old 
homestead and it has been carefully preserved, 
so that notwithstanding its many years of life, it 
is practically in perfect condition. 

[203 I 



Among the most prominent delegates to the 
convention that was summoned by the Legislature 
to meet in Boston, in 1787, to take under considera- 
tion the perfecting of the National Constitution, 
we find heading the list one Doctor Thomas Kitt- 
redge of North Andover, a prominent gentleman 
and one whose loyalty has never been questioned. 

North Andover lies to the north of the town 
of that name and was originally known as the 
North Parish. It was divided from the orig- 
inal town in 1709. Previous to that it had 
been reserved for inland plantations, all persons 
who settled there having three years' immunity 
from taxation. During that period farms were 
cultivated, dwellings erected, and the church 
built, where doctrines most severe were meted out, 
those neglecting to attend meeting for three months 
being publicly whipped. The houses erected in 
this village, with the exception of a very few, were 



not distinguished for architectural beauty or for 
fine or costly furniture. Of the better class only a 
few remain. Prominent among these is the Kitt- 
redge mansion, which is typical of the highest 
development of colonial architecture in the early 
part of the eighteenth century. The owner was 
not only one of the ablest surgeons of the Revolu- 
tionary army, but a public-spirited citizen, a 
capable officer, and the ancestor of a line of sur- 
geons and physicians who have done most impor- 
tant things in the community. 

The fine old house at Andover is closely asso- 
ciated with the history of the family in this coun- 
try. It is a large, square mansion, three stories in 
height, crowning the crest of a hill. It is situ- 
ated far back from the main road, a terraced 
lawn reaching down to a colonial fence that sur- 
rounds the entire estate. Entrance is through a 
picket gate that swings between dignified colonial 
posts and which gives into a path leading by 
terraces straight to the house, at the rear of which 
the grounds extend for many acres. On them are 
large barns, which provide ample space for cattle. 

The house has sheltered many generations of the 
same family. It was built in 1784 by the doctor, 
who was one of the third generation in America, 



a son of Doctor John Kittredge, who came to North 
Andover from Tewksbury about 1741. At the 
time of his settlement, this Doctor John Kittredge 
purchased large tracts of land, covering the entire 
site of the present village, and lived in an old farm- 
house which has only recently been torn down. 
' Doctor Thomas Kittredge was one of three sons. 
He secured a portion of the holding from his father 
about 174s, and on it he erected what was con- 
sidered to be the second finest house that had been 
built in that section of the country. It was so 
dignified and impressive that it was surpassed 
only by the residence of Joshua Phillips, whose 
mansion was situated in the so-called South Parish 
of the town. In its construction skilled labor was 
employed, as was shown by the fine hand-carving 
around the fireplaces in many of the important rooms 
of the house. The site occupied originally many 
acres, including what was once known as the old 
training field. It was here, in the early period of 
our history and before the estate was used for 
private grounds, that the early militia were wont 
to gather on Muster Day, dressed in the pictur- 
esque old-time uniform. Here they performed won- 
derful feats of skill that were viewed by the country 
folk for many miles around. 












Plate LXXV. — Hallway, Kittrcdge House. 


On these same grounds was the first KIttredge 
mansion, and not far away were the slave quarters, 
significant of the fact that the owner of the old 
homestead was a man of means and also that he 
owned many slaves, as was customary in those 
days among the wealthier class in Massachusetts. 
To-day the old quarters have disappeared, and 
only tradition hands down the many stories con- 
nected with their past. 

The immediate surroundings of the present 
mansion are very much the same as when it was 
erected so many years ago. There have been some 
improvements, however, since the time when the 
great housewarming took place, an important 
event in those days and attended by friends and 
neighbors for miles around. 

The dignified house is well proportioned, fit- 
ting picturesquely into its surroundings. The 
main portion is square of build ; in each corner a 
massive yet graceful] pilaster shows hand-carving 
wonderfully fine in design. The windows have 
retained their small panes and show carved cor- 
nices. These, by their formal appearance, lend an 
additional dignity and carry out the scheme of 
simplicity evident in the handsome, well-propor- 
tioned porch, which is a feature of the home. 

[ 207 ] 


The main approach is through the quaint gate- 
way in the center of the colonial fence. This 
gives upon a narrow path leading between tree- 
dotted grass plots to the main entrance. This 
entrance is characterized by finely carved columns 
that prove an admirable foil to the door of dark, 
panelled wood, flanked on either side by narrow 
lights of glass and ornamented with a colonial 
knocker of the hammer type. From this porch 
one obtains a most extensive view of the sur- 
rounding country, for picturesque vistas are found 
on every side. 

The heavy door swings back on its strap hinges 
and the visitor finds himself in a wide, large hall- 
way extending entirely through the house, dividing 
it in two. The interior remains unchanged, and 
the lofty ceilings, the great hallway, and broad 
staircases are in contrast to the small entry and 
narrow, winding stairs found in many colonial 

As one steps into the great hall, with its hand- 
some, panelled woodwork and old-fashioned furni- 
ture, he feels no jarring note. The deep cornice 
showing dentation affords a correct finish to the 
soft-toned hangings which divide it from the 
wainscot. To the left and right lead fine, large, 



square rooms filled with the rarest models of 
Chippendale, Hepplewhite, and Sheraton. 

The colonial staircase with its fine, hand-carved 
newel-post and balusters is at the left of the hall- 
way. The stairs are boxed, the risers low, and the 
treads wide. Half-way up is a wide landing, 
lighted by a fine example of a colonial window, 
showing an arched top. Through this the sun- 
light streams upon an old grandfather's clock, 
which has steadily ticked off the hours since placed 
there in the early days when the house was first 

A short flight of steps that turn at the right leads 
to the second-story hall, which corresponds in size 
and finish to the one below. It is finished with 
wonderful examples of the old masters* pieces 
shown in Sheraton and Chippendale design. No 
modern touch has been introduced to rob this 
home of its colonial atmosphere, and everywhere 
are found rich relics of a distinguished past. 

The house is divided into four large rooms on the 
entrance floor. Here one discovers a perfect treas- 
ure trove of antiques, for in addition to wonderful 
furniture, there is some of the finest china to be 
found in the country. 

At the right is the living-room, where the wood- 


work shows wide panels, the fireplace having an 
old-time, soapstone fire-frame. Every piece of 
furniture is of the colonial type, the sofas being 
of the Empire period, and the chairs of Sheraton, 
showing rush bottom and often known as fancy 
chairs. A wonderful old cabinet is filled with 
relics such as are rarely found, even in a colonial 

The parlor is on the opposite side of the hallway ; 
the woodwork around the fireplace in this room is 
hand-carved, with baskets of flowers for the center 
ornamentation, and festoon effects on either side. 
It has a facing of tiles, on which are depicted Bibli- 
cal scenes. The woodwork shows well planned 
panelling, with a deep cornice above the quaint 
wall hangings. The recessed windows are fitted 
with built-in seats and the old-time shutters which 
were originally used as safeguard against the 

Every piece of furniture is a genuine antique, the 
Hepplewhite with the favorite shield or heart- 
shaped back and straight legs, and the cozy arm- 
chair of Sheraton design known in this country as 
"Martha Washington," owing to the fact that one 
of this design was included in the furnishings at 
Mt. Vernon, all being choice examples. Equally as 



interesting as these fine bits is a quaint, old bronze 
lamp, 1820, with lusters and glass shades. The 
Roundabout Chippendale chair, and the center 
table, with its thin top, plain tripod, and ball feet, 
are typical of those designed about the first of the 
nineteenth century. 

In the dining-room, which opens from the rear 
of the hallway, the same dignified simplicity is a 
dominant feature. The furnishing of mahogany, 
the china cupboards, and the rare pieces of Chippen- 
dale and Sheraton are worthy of their attractive 
setting. The fireplace, with its exquisite carving, 
brings into relief the fine lines of the mantel above. 
Rare old pewter, silver, and exquisite bits of 
Sheffield plate are found in the deep closets in this 

The second story is in keeping with the good 
taste displayed on the lower floor. The furnish- 
ings here are antique also, including some of the 
best examples of four-posters to be found in New 
England. The fireplaces vary from the Franklin 
stove, to the large, open fireplaces of our grand- 
dames' time, with broad spaces of panelled wood- 
work; the white finish, mellowed to ivory tones, 
affords a suitable background for the wonderful 
old pictures. 



The house as a whole typifies the highest ideals 
of a by-gone period. No modern touch is allowed 
to mar the beauty of its simple dignity. Never 
since its erection has it been out of the family. 
As before stated, the builder was one of three 
sons, all physicians. There was also a sister 
Elizabeth, who inherited medical ability to such 
a marked degree that she took charge of her father's 
patients, and after her marriage and removal to 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, was frequently 
called upon to assist at surgical operations. There 
is a story extant relating to her visit to a patient 
during a dark night. While on her way she 
slipped and fell, breaking her leg. Nothing 
daunted, she set the bone herself, and so well did 
she do it that she suffered no serious inconvenience 
from her mishap. 

Doctor Thomas Kittredge commenced his prac- 
tice in Andover about 1775. At the commence- 
ment of the Revolution, he enlisted in the Conti- 
nental army, rendering very valuable services as 
surgeon in Colonel James Fry's regiment. Of 
him it has been well said that he had more natural 
skill than any man in the country. A dignified 
and commanding gentleman, he enjoyed unusual 
facilities for aiding the sick and the wounded, 


Plate LXXV^I. — Living Room, Kittredge House; Parlor, 
Kittredire House. 

-"" *^«*?«»ssw55r- 

Plate LXXVII. — Soapstone P'ire Frame, Kittrcdge House 
Fireplace, Kittredge House. 


not only through his wealth, which allowed him 
to procure for them many delicacies, but through 
the services of his brother-in-law. Major Samuel 
Osgood, who was in charge of the department of 

His father, while not taking an active part in 
the work, did much for the welfare of the soldiers 
who were sent home to recuperate. He frequently 
kept them in the old house for many months, or 
until they had fully recovered their health. 

At the close of the Revolution, Doctor Thomas 
served a long term in the Legislature, and his 
sterling character and fine intellect combined to 
make him one of the most valued members of this 
learned body of men. The last act of his life 
was in keeping with the kindly traits that had al- 
ways distinguished him and had made him gen- 
erally beloved. He encountered at the roadway 
a man coming from afar, with yet many miles to 
go before his destination was reached. Noticing 
the worn-out condition of the horse he rode, the 
doctor commanded the animal to be installed in 
his own barn and offered the stranger the use of 
one of his horses that he might continue on his 
way. The next morning the borrowed animal 
was sent home, but the kindly master who had so 

I 213] 


graciously loaned him was not present to note his 
return, having passed quietly away in his sleep 
during the night. 

In his day slavery was countenanced in Massa- 
chusetts, and the affairs of the colored servants, 
however trivial, were attended to by the good doc- 
tor and his wife, who were ever thoughtful of the 
interests of their slaves. The raising of the great 
house, known as the Kittredge mansion, was a 
source of great rejoicing among those servitors, 
and one of the slaves, Caesar by name, held in his 
arms the baby of the family. Doctor Joseph Kitt- 
redge, first, then nine months old, that he might 
be able to say, when he was a man grown, that he 
was at the raising. 

There were many incidents in which the slaves 
afforded the doctor great amusement, particularly 
one which occurred when Cato was about to be 
married. The family and guests were gathered in 
the parlor, and Doctor Sims, the pastor of the 
church, was asked to officiate. Cato had been 
presented for the occasion with a suit of small- 
clothes, and half a crown for a wedding fee. He 
was very much impressed with the responsibility 
of the money, but he could not determine when or 
where the fee was to come in. This led him to keep 



his ears and eyes wide open, watching the minis- 
ter's every word and action. The ceremony con- 
cluded, Doctor Sims said in a solemn voice : "Let 
us pray," stretching out his hand as he spoke. 
The nervous bridegroom understood it as "Let us 
pay," and he thrust his hand hastily into his 
pocket and brought out the half-crown, placing it 
in the minister's hand before the voice of suppli- 
cation showed him that the summons was to 
"pray" and not to "pay." 

Doctor Joseph Kittredge succeeded to his 
father's practice in 1818. He married Miss Han- 
nah Hodges of Salem, and two of their sons were 
educated for the medical profession, — Doctor 
Joseph Kittredge, second, and Doctor John Kitt- 
redge. The first named succeeded his father in 
practice and was a highly respected and beloved 
physician of North Andover until his death in 1878. 
Two of his sons are doctors. Doctor Thomas Kitt- 
redge of Salem, and Doctor Joseph Kittredge, third. 

The standard of hospitality established by the 
builder has been rigidly adhered to through all the 
passing years, and more especially during the sum- 
mer season the old rooms re-echo with the merry 
chatter of gay young voices, much as they did in 
the olden days. 




The types of mansions described in this book are 
found not only in New England but through the 
South. They show marked differences, which 
give to them picturesqueness and absence of 
monotony in build. In studying these homes, we 
must remember that master carpenters were 
steadily gaining opportunities to brighten their 
wits by books dealing with architecture, which 
were being imported into the colonies. We must 
also remember that increase of wealth had brought 
about more advantages, and that the nation was 
demanding better and more elaborate homes. 

With change in exterior came a corresponding 
one in the interior. Transatlantic ideas were 
incorporated in the newer homes. There came a 
progress in the interior finish, showing artistic 
staircases, colonial windows, and hand-carving in 
mantel and cornice. Thus was introduced a new 
and lasting development along architectural lines. 



• With the larger houses many features of the 
original ones were discarded. There was no longer 
the wide central chimney around which the rooms 
clustered. We find no longer in the chimney- 
places bricks set in clay, and lathes split from logs, 
but better and more lasting work. The wood 
commonly used in these old houses was white 
pine, which is not so common to-day, although 
there is nothing more lasting. 

Unfortunately, not many of these mansions have 
survived, many having fallen into decay and dis- 
appeared. There are, however, enough left to aid 
the growth of colonial ideas in twentieth century 

One of these houses that deserves more than 
passing notice stands on Main Street in Medford, 
Massachusetts, "a house within a house," and is 
called the Royall house. It is the only building 
standing on this land, which is known as "The 
Ten Hills Farm." This estate, with additional 
grounds, was granted to Governor Winthrop in 
163 1, and as early as 1637 the homestead lot was 
set apart and walled in. Not long afterward we 
find that tenants and employees of the governor 
were located here, the Royall house being one of 
their places of abode. 



The original mansion, which was two and a half 
stories in height, was much plainer and smaller 
than is the present one. Since its erection it has 
been raised one story, and the present house has 
been made to enclose the original structure. 
Among the old houses that are still standing, few 
have the dignity and stateliness of this mansion, 
and its roof has sheltered some of the most im- 
portant men and women connected with our 
country's history. 

The estate is situated on the western side of the 
main road of what was then known as Mead's 
Ford, from which the town of Medford derived 
its name. It was owned by John Winthrop 
between 164 1 and 1645, becoming the property 
of his son, John Winthrop, Jr., after this period. 
It was purchased of the Winthrops by Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Lidgett, who made it over to her son Charles. 
He, however, being an adherent of Andros, was 
ordered to leave the province, together with the 
unpopular governor. 

The house at that time was two and one half 
stories in height, with dormer windows in the 
attic. There were two rooms on each floor, and 
the dimensions over all were eighteen by forty-five 
feet, the west, north, and south walls being of brick. 








Plate LXXIX. — Doorway, Royall House. 


Lieutenant-governor John Usher, brother-in-law 
of Colonel Lidgett, came into possession of the 
house through the entanglement of its owner in 
lawsuits. During his possession he enlarged it by 
building a lean-to on the west side, leaving the 
original brick wall to form a partition between the 
eastern and western rooms. 

By careful inspection of this brick work on the 
south side of the building, one can follow the orig- 
inal outline of the gable end. There is a little 
window in the lean-to, differing in finish from the 
two others above it and yet not in line with them. 
This directs the attention to the second period in 
the evolution of this historic mansion. 

Lieutenant-governor Usher was Councilor and 
Treasurer of Massachusetts under Andros. He 
married the daughter of Peter Lidgett, and later 
on married for a second wife the daughter of George 
Allen, who bought the New Hampshire grants 
from the heirs of Mason. This home on the Mys- 
tic was a favorite resort of the Tories but the last 
of the governor's life was surrounded by business 
troubles and lawsuits, in which he was most un- 
successful. In fact, before his death, he put his 
farm out of his own control, the deed to be re- 
turned to his widow at the time of his death. 



In 1732, nine years later, Isaac Royall, who 
owned a large plantation in Antigua in the Lee- 
ward Islands, a man of considerable means, pur- 
chased the estate, and it has since borne his name. 
At the time of its purchase it embraced five hun- 
dred and four and three quarters acres and twenty- 
three rods of land, and the house and grounds were 
bought for £10,230 los. gd. 

Isaac Royall was a wealthy man; he brought 
to the estate twenty-seven slaves, for whom he 
paid as head-tax, five pounds each, the slaves acting 
as his body servants and coachmen. Immediately 
work was started on remodelling the whole build- 
ing, and it took five years to complete it. The 
house was made three stories high throughout. 
Barns were laid out; the slave quarters and 
summer-house were built, and a high wall enclosed 
the grounds from the highway. This was broken 
by a low wall and a fence that ran directly in front 
of the house. In those days an elm-shaded drive- 
way led from the main road to a paved courtyard 
that was on the west side of the house, its pic- 
turesqueness enhanced by flower-bordered walks 
that reached from the mansion on the west to 
the summer-house, and on the east to the road. 

The house was clapboarded on the north side, 
[ 220] 


panelled and embellished with hand-carving on 
the garden side, while the street front was not 
greatly changed. It is to-day in fine repair and 
probably contains the only slave quarters to be 
found in Massachusetts. There is still to be seen 
in the interior the original fireplace where the 
slaves did their cooking ; the brick portion of this 
was built in 1732, while the wooden part is much 
older. An arch of masonry underneath the fire- 
place is one of the largest in existence and is used 
as a support for this portion of the building. 

At the west of the house is an extensive court- 
yard with a foundation of cobblestones. Here, 
in olden days, Roy all's chariot, the only one north 
of Boston, with four horses, would come rolling 
up to the side door to leave the guests. This led 
to the erroneous idea that the western side of the 
house was the front. 

The Royalls were descended from William 
Royall, who came to Salem with Governor Crad- 
dock ; during the time he lived here it was a rally- 
ing place for social life, no one of importance riding 
by without alighting. It was the scene of many a 
merrymaking and was the show place of the town. 
At the end of the garden was the summer-house 
that is still carefully treasured, being octagonal in 



shape, with carved pilasters, bell-shaped roof, and 
cupola surmounted by a winged Mercury that 
swings with the breeze, and was used as a weather- 
vane. This figure is a fine piece of carving that 
stands nearly five feet high. The summer-house 
stood on an artificial mound, within which was a 
walled cellar which was entered by a trap-door, 
adding great mystery to the structure. Tradition 
states that this was a prison for slaves, but it is 
more practical if less romantic to believe that it 
was used for storage purposes. This summer- 
house, with its arched windows and the tender 
sentiments scratched upon the woodwork, was a 
pleasant place in all weathers except the more 

The architecture of the house is interesting. 
The doorway on the east is the true entrance door, 
showing Corinthian columns, while the Georgian 
porch at the west, supporting Ionic columns, is 
also considered a fine bit of architecture. 

There can be but little doubt that a house show- 
ing the dignity of exterior of the Royall house must 
have equally good interior woodwork. One real- 
izes before opening the colonial door that he will 
see inside a fine old staircase, richly carved newel- 
post and balusters. The carving in this house as 

[ 222 ] 

Plate LXXX. — Hallway from the Rear, Royall House. 












well as others of its type is not confined to the 
capitals that adorn its architraves. 

The long hallway extends the entire length of 
the house, with doors at either end. The stairway 
is on the eastern side facing the entrance, and is 
approached through an arch showing fine hand- 
carving. The balusters are carved in three dif- 
ferent designs, while the newel-post is a combina- 
tion of the three, one carved within the other. 
The staircase leads by low treads to the second- 
story floor. It is made under the old stair-builders' 

"Twice the rise plus the tread equals twenty-five, 
Then cut on the string." 

There is no stucco work either in the hallway 
or in any other part of the house, and the wood 
throughout is pine. 

i At the right of the hallway are double parlors, 
the western one being finished in wood which 
shows wonderful hand-carving done in 1732, and 
is lighted by arched windows. The outside shut- 
ters remain just as they were all through the lower 
part of the house when remodelled. The fireplace 
is finished in old Mulberry Dutch tiles and contains 
Hessian andirons, which differ from those gener- 



ally seen in that they face each other. These 
andirons came into vogue just after the Revolu- 
tion and were used to support backlogs. 

The eastern parlor is reached through folding- 
doors, which mask the original walls of the Win- 
throp House. These rooms, during the Royalls' 
reign, were used for many social events. The old 
wing arm-chair with Dutch legs came in about 
1750. The silk-embroidered, Chippendale fire- 
screen shows beautiful, mythological pictures, while 
the old, steeple-topped brass andirons display to 
advantage the Mulberry tiles of 1847 and also 
the quaint old fireback. On the wall hangs a 
picture of Isaac Royall, who gave money to Har- 
vard College to found the Royall Professorship of 
Law which was the foundation of the Harvard Law 

During the life history of the house, nineteen 
marriages have taken place in these rooms, one of 
them being that of the oldest daughter, Elizabeth 
Royall, to Sir William (Sparhawk) Pepperrell. 
Here also Penelope Royall married Henry Vassall 
of Cambridge, uncle of the builder of the Longfellow 
House and of Christ Church. Vassall and his wife 
are the only ones buried under the church. It was 
during their life here that Agnes Surriage, accord- 



ing to Abigail Adams' diary, came to the house 
frequently with Henry Frankland. 

The dining-room which is opposite the double 
parlors is at the present time being restored to 
the Royall period and will include much of the 
rare old panelling and fine hand-carving that are 
shown all through the house, as well as quaint 

The kitchen contains many old relics. Among 
them is the Porter sign which was used in Medford 
Square in 1 769, on the Royall Oak Tavern. The 
New Hampshire soldiers had such an intense feeling 
against the English sign that before the battle of 
Bunker Hill they fired against it in anger, the 
bullet marks being still plainly seen. In this 
kitchen, also, is kept the first fork in the colony, 
brought over by Governor WInthrop, also candle- 
dips made over one hundred and twenty-five years 
ago by the old process of taking wicks of twine 
and dipping them in fat in a cold room. 

The chambers are, many of them, most Interest- 
ing. Several of them show quaint tiles. One of 
them, the northeast chamber, has a wonderful 
old fireplace with sixty ancient Bible tiles, many 
of them original. These depict different scenes In 
Bible stories, such as Cain slaying his brother with 



his left hand, the whale and Jonah, Mary and 
Joseph fleeing into Egypt. 

The southeast chamber shows a great deal of 
the old Winthrop panelling. This was trans- 
ferred when Royall reconstructed the building. 
Here, as in the northeast chamber, are wonderful 
old tiles, the Royall house boasting more of the 
best specimens of that early period than any 

Everywhere through the house we find indica- 
tions of the luxury introduced by the wealthy 
Royalists. All of the rooms are large, with high 
ceilings and wide windows showing inside shutters. 
The hand-carving is especially noticeable, being 
beautifully done and most original in design. 

In the guest room, or marble chamber as it is 
generally known, cornices or moldings are ex- 
quisitely carved. There is one panelling over the 
fireplace that is three feet wide and five feet long, 
while the thickness of the walls is shown by the 
width of the window-seats. Each window is en- 
closed in an alcove, and some of them retain the 
original glass. 

It is said of Isaac Royall, second, that his love 
of display and his liking for good things were 
known throughout the town. He was one of the 









Plate LXXXllI. — Chanibeis in the Rc)\ all House, 


most hospitable citizens, giving the finest of 
dinners to his friends, the Vassalls, who occupied 
the Craigie House, the Olivers, and other citizens 
of Tory Row, besides dignitaries of Church and 
State. His wines were the best, his horses and 
carriages the most stylish, and it was said of him 
that he was one of the most eccentric men in the 
colony. He kept a journal describing minutely 
every incident and every visitor, even going so 
far as to tell what slippers he wore. His ambitions 
were political, but he was never very prominent. 

At the outbreak of the Revolution, Isaac Royall 
left the house, and his estate was taken under the 
Confiscation Act. Finding that the place was 
deserted by a hated Tory, it was made a lawful 
retreat for the Continental army, and used by 
Colonel John Stark for headquarters. He lived 
there with his ofiicers, and his regiment was 
quartered near by. In the old summer-house 
were held many councils of war, and from here 
the troops went forth to fight at the battle of 
Bunker Hill. 

During the time that General Stark and his 
wife lived here, which was over a year, they en- 
tertained a great deal. Molly was a most loyal 
wife. At the time of the evacuation of Boston, it 



was said that she went to the top of the stairs 
leading to the roof above the attic after her hus- 
band had marched to Dorchester Heights, and 
watched to see whether the British ships in the 
harbor landed troops on the north side of the 
Mystic. In such an event, she had orders to alarm 
the people. 

Lee and Sullivan were quartered here for a short 
time. The fine old wines left by Colonel Royall 
did service for the officers. The cellar was ran- 
sacked in search of goodies ; the soldiers, in oddly 
designed uniforms, passed up and down, stacking 
their guns in the wide hall, while their flag of thir- 
teen stars fluttered over the entrance. 

After the government took possession of the 
property, it was returned to the Royall heirs in 
1790, and they in turn sold it to a syndicate. 

In 1 8 10 Jacob Tidd came into possession of the 
estate, his wife living there for fifty-one years. 
She was Ruth Dawes, sister of William Dawes, who 
took the midnight ride to Concord, April 18, 1775. 
Her bedchamber, in which hangs a picture of 
William Dawes, has been restored by her de- 

The house has been acquired by the Royall 
House Association, being used to-day for patriotic 



and educational purposes. In a closet of one of 
the rooms is shown a tea-chest, the only one left 
from the memorable Boston Tea Party. Few 
houses in colonial history possess the interest of 
this one, and the Royall House stands unique and 
distinctive among the many colonial houses of the 

[229 1 



With the exception of Mount Vernon, there is 
perhaps no house better known In America than 
the Henry Wadsworth Longfellow house at Cam- 
bridge, Massachusetts, Its reputation having been 
gained from the fact that It was the home of the 
late distinguished and beloved poet. Here have 
come most Illustrious guests from all over the 
world, and under the roof-tree was given to Long- 
fellow the theme for his famous poem of Evangeline, 
during a visit of Horace Conelly and of Nathaniel 

There are few mansions of more stately dignity 
than this large, colonial house, standing back from 
the main road, surrounded by smooth, velvety 
lawns dotted here and there with mighty elms. 
It was built In 1760 by John Vassall, of a family 
prominent In the history of our country, whose 
name had been traced back to the year 1500, and 
many_ members of which have married into dis- 
tinguished families. 

[230 ] 


John Vassall was the son of "Colonel" John 
Vassal!, who married Elizabeth Phipps, daughter 
of Lieutenant-governor Phipps. His uncle, Henry 
Vassall, married Penelope Royall of Medford. 
These two brothers were sons of "Major" Leonard 
Vassall, who was twice married and had eighteen 

John Vassall, like his father, was graduated from 
Harvard. On January 12, 1 761, he married Eliza- 
beth Oliver, daughter of Lieutenant-governor 
Oliver. His sister Elizabeth had previously been 
married to Lieutenant-governor Oliver, who lived 
near by at Elmwood. 

When John Vassall built the Longfellow house, 
the estate was not so contracted as it is to-day, 
but embraced large grounds of more than a hun- 
dred acres. Concerning his life here, there is 
little known, save that the family were very hos- 
pitable and were numbered among the Royalists, 
who in those days formed a small colony of their 
own, later known as "Old Tory Row." This 
included many wealthy people of Boston who had 
not as yet embraced the cause of the colonists. 

Ill ^77 5i at the commencement of the Revolu- 
tionary troubles, this group of men were naturally 
out of favor and eventually it ceased to exist. 



About this time Vassall left to take up his resi- 
dence in Boston, and soon afterward, failing to 
agree with the colonists' ideas, he removed with 
his family to England. In accordance with the 
custom of that period, the estate was confiscated 
in 1778, shortly after its desertion by its original 
owner. This was some years after the encamp- 
ment of continental troops in Cambridge, when 
this mansion, like many others, was used for offi- 
cers' headquarters. 

On the grounds were encamped the regiment 
from Marblehead under the command of Colonel 
Glover. This seems to have been a favorite ren- 
dezvous for the colonial troops, for later on General 
Washington made this his headquarters, remaining 
for a long period. While he was here. Madam 
Washington joined him, and tradition tells of much 
gaiety and many banquets given at the residence 
by the general and his wife. There are still in 
existence notes from his account book which deal 
with this house, as for instance : 

"July 15, 1775, Paid for cleaning the House 
which was provided for my Quarters, and which 
had been occupied by the Marblehead regiment, 
£2 los. gd.^' 

It is probable that this house was used for a 


longer period than any other during the war for 
headquarters of Washington, as it was not until 
March of the following year after the evacuation 
of Boston by the British that it was again left 
empty. In this dwelling the generals met often 
to hold secret discussions. Representatives from 
the Legislature, then convened at Watertown, 
held here many long conferences concerning the 
advisability of different schemes to defeat the 
British, and many people of note from all over the 
world came here to meet Washington on both 
social and political affairs. 

We are told that a "Twelfth Night" party was 
given in the drawing-room opposite the Longfellow 
study, where many entertainments took place, 
and that the oldest inhabitants were invited to 
this party. Down the stairs, where now stands 
the old grandfather's clock made famous by 
Longfellow's poems, the stately colonial dames of 
Revolutionary times came slowly, dressed in their 
silks and satins, with powdered hair and patches, 
to take part in the festivities within. 

Longfellow's study, which is at the right of the 
house, and which to-day fronts the long con- 
servatory occupying the entire side of the house, 
was used by Washington as his dining-room. 



Above It was his private office, where councils of 
war were held. It was a very convenient room for 
this purpose, being off from the main house, quiet 
and retired. When Longfellow first purchased 
the house, he also used this room for a study, 
afterwards converting It Into a chamber. 

It is said that Washington never permitted his 
affairs to destroy his sense of humor. During 
the time of his occupancy here, an elderly woman 
was brought before General Putnam. She was 
believed to be a spy, although she stoutly denied 
it. It is said that the general, familiarly known 
as "Put," regarded the case of sufficient Impor- 
tance to be brought to the attention of his com- 
mander and Insisted that she come with him to 
headquarters. She was an obstinate woman, and 
having no fear of capture, resented his treatment, 
absolutely refusing to enter the gate to the grounds. 
In vain was she reasoned with until at last, in 
desperation, the valiant general slung her on his 
back and brought her up to the house. As Wash- 
ington witnessed his most courageous officer en- 
tering his house In this manner, he could not re- 
frain from laughter, which only incensed the 
woman all the more. 

During conferences at headquarters, great care 


had to be taken lest they be surprised by the 
British. While one of these conferences was being 
held, word was sent out that the British were on 
their way. Without a moment's delay each offi- 
cer hurried for his necessary adjuncts to meet the 
emergency. In the midst of the confusion, how- 
ever. General Greene lost his head and could be 
heard above the din, calling loudly : "My wig, my 
wig; where is my wig?" His demand was so 
emphatic that the attention of the little group was 
instantly seized. General Lee was the first to 
regain his composure and with ready wit called 
out in an equally loud voice : "Behind the looking- 
glass. General." Greene, passing the mirror, found 
to his consternation that the wig was on his head. 
Overjoyed that he was not to go into battle wig- 
less, he joined in the general laugh that followed. 
The report of the British approach proved false, 
however, and the officers returned to their con- 

After the estate had been confiscated, it was 
purchased by one Nathaniel Tracy, an intimate 
of Washington, whose principal home was in 
Newburyport, Massachusetts. Tracy was a very 
wealthy merchant, indeed one of the most brills 
iant financiers in the country, and his spectacular 



ventures had given him a prominent name in local 
history. Tracy was a large landowner, having 
estates practically all over the country, and while 
he owned the Vassall house, he rarely lived there, 
using it simply as a place where he could spend 
week-ends if he so desired. 

Andrew Craigie was the next prominent owner 
of the house, purchasing it on January i, 1793. 
At that time the grounds had been enlarged until 
they comprised one hundred and fifty acres, a 
part of which is now used for the Harvard Ob- 
servatory. This Craigie was an "apothecary- 
general" or, as he would be known now, a com- 
missary, for the Continental army. He was a 
most eccentric man but clever enough to acquire 
a large estate. This house appealed to him, both 
from the fact that it had been Washington's head- 
quarters and from its own beauty both of exterior 
and interior. He married a Miss Shaw of Nan- 
tucket, who had been in love with a young sailor 
of limited means. The wealth of Craigie dazzled 
her, and while she never forgot her early lover, 
treasuring his love letters until just before her 
death, she made a charming mistress for the 

Craigie, like other wealthy men of his time, was 
















pretentious and spent money lavishly. While it 
is believed that he built the service department on 
the western wing of the house, yet this is not 
definitely known. During his occupancy, the large, 
square, eastern room was enlarged and adorned 
with many columns to afford more space for his 
frequent entertainments. Prominent merchants 
of Boston and many noted people accepted his 
hospitality. An amusing instance is told of a 
visit of Talleyrand, who conversed entirely in 
French with Mrs. Craigie, the host not under- 
standing a word that was spoken. It is currently 
reported that the Duke of Kent, Queen Victoria's 
father, who for a long time was stationed at Hali- 
fax, paid a visit here ; impressed with the honor, 
Craigie afterwards purchased the coach and horses 
the duke had used in Boston. 

Craigie built the bridge from Boston to East 
Cambridge which bears his name and engaged in 
many investments. He speculated once too often, 
however, and lost nearly all of his money. He died 
soon after, but his widow remained in the same 
house, yet under such reduced circumstances that 
she was obliged to let rooms to college students. 
Two of these were Edward Everett and Jared 
Sparks, who afterwards brought their brides here. 



Later on, when Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 
left Bowdoin College to take a position as pro- 
fessor in Harvard University, and desired exten- 
sive apartments, he appealed to her. She at first 
refused him, having tired of the care of students 
and not wishing to let rooms any longer. He was 
an attractive and agreeable young man, and when 
Mrs. Craigie learned that he was a professor, she 
invited him to visit the different rooms, telling 
him of Washington's connection with the house, 
but informing him that he could not have the use 
of any of the apartments. At length, however, 
after a long controversy, she agreed to let him 
take the southeast chamber, to which was after- 
wards added the west front chamber for his dining- 

At that time the back part of the house was 
given over to a farmer and his wife, the latter 
caring for Longfellow's rooms and supplying his 
meals. During a part of the time that Longfellow 
had rooms here, Worcester, who wrote the dic- 
tionary, was another occupant. To this house 
came Cornelius G. Felton, Charles Sumner, and 
many others to visit Longfellow, who in 1842 
entertained Charles Dickens here. 

In 1843 Longfellow bought the house of Mrs. 


Craigie. He was the last occupant, and every 
room in the house is connected with him. In one 
of the upper chambers Hyperion was written, as 
were many other poems, including The Courtship 
of Miles Standish and Hiawatha. 

To this mansion one pleasant day in June came 
Hawthorne to dine with Longfellow, bringing with 
him his friend, Horace Conelly. On reaching 
the house, to Hawthorne's surprise and chagrin, 
he found two other visitors, George S. Hillard and 
Professor Felton of Harvard College. Hawthorne 
had hoped in this visit to review with Longfellow 
old times in Brunswick and the history of some of 
his class of whom he had lost sight since leaving 
college. After the departure of the other guests, 
Longfellow, Hawthorne, and Conelly held an an- 
imated conversation on their literary work. At 
this time the story of the French Acadian girl, 
just married, exiled and separated from her hus- 
band, was told. Hawthorne had never been 
interested, but Longfellow saw in it a popular 
theme and with permission wrote the poem that 
has been considered one of his best works. 

The Longfellow house faces the main road, a 
large, square mansion with entrance porch. The 
grounds are now reduced to a small area sur- 



rounding the house and are pleasantly laid out 
in gardens and lawns. The main door bears a 
ponderous knocker, and one enters a wide, digni- 
fied hallway. On the first landing of the stair- 
case stands the old grandfather's clock so familiar 
to all readers of Longfellow's poems. The prin- 
cipal room open to the public is the library, which 
leads from the right of the hall, a square room 
finished in brown and containing many mementoes 
that were there during Longfellow's lifetime. 
This room has been left practically unchanged. 
Over the fireplace is a beautiful girandole, with 
convex glass and gilt frame and ebony rim inside. 
This is said to have been made in 1800 — an heir- 
loom. There are many fine old pieces of fur- 
niture, each one of which bespeaks some event 
connected with the poet's life. The furniture is 
not old-fashioned and no attempt has been made 
to keep it up to any period. It is simply left as a 
memorial in the room where Longfellow sat and 
wrote and received his friends. 

The grounds cover scarcely half an acre, but 
the mansion with a few modern improvements 
remains as it was in the early days when it was 
first built by John Vassall. 

[ 240 1 



Long years ago before our country was thickly 
settled, and when our forefathers extracted from 
the soil a scanty living, the houses were simple 
little ones, often built with only four rooms. It 
was in such a house as this that William Codding- 
ton made his early home. It was delightfully 
situated, close to the bank of Black Brook, and 
surrounded by overhanging trees. 
[ In 1635 William Coddington and his fellow as- 
sociates received a grant of five hundred acres at 
Braintree, now Quincy, Massachusetts, extending 
from the old Dorchester line at Squantum to 
Howe's Neck, and about a mile inland. This 
was a goodly tract of land, with level meadows 
that promised good plowing. The next year, in 
the heart of the grant, Mr. Coddington built a 
house that consisted of a large kitchen, a living- 
room, and two chambers. Near him was a small 
colony of settlers, including Reverend John Wheel- 



wrlght, Anne Hutchinson, and Sir Harry Vane. 
They composed a congenial group of free thinkers, 
who met often in the Coddington kitchen to sit 
around the large open fireplace, while they dis- 
cussed religious views much more liberal than the 
Puritan's way of thinking. Many of them, for 
holding these views, were banished to Rhode Island. 

Coddington did not live long after the house- 
building, and was succeeded by Edmund Quincy, 
the first of the name to live in what is now known 
as the Quincy homestead. He was a man of con- 
siderable wealth and importance, coming here 
from Boston and bringing with him six servants, 
which was considered a most pretentious estab- 
lishment in those days. His wife, named Judith, 
was a woman of great ability, and after the death 
of her husband, managed the estate with good 
judgment. Her daughter, also named Judith, 
married John Hull, the mint-master, and became 
the mother of Hannah Hull. Hannah became 
the wife of Judge Samuel Sewall, and as the story 
runs, received for her dowry her weight in pine- 
tree shillings. 

The second of the name of Quincy to occupy 
this house was also named Edmund and afterwards 
received the title of colonel. He was a man of 









Plate LXXXVII. — The Porch, (^uiiicy Mansion. 


dignified personality and forceful character and 
had held at various times most of the important 
offices in the town. His death in 1698 was fol- 
lowed by that of his wife, two years later, and the 
reins of government fell into the hands of Edmund 
third, then a youth of twenty. The responsibility 
made the latter a very thoughtful man. He 
became more distinguished than either his father 
or his grandfather, passing nearly his whole life in 
public service. It was this Edmund who, in his 
twenty-first year, married Dorothy Flynt, the 
first Dorothy Q. of history, and ancestress of all 
the other Dorothy Q's. 

In 1706, as the house had become too small for 
the family, Quincy built additions at the front of 
the old mansion, giving it its present appearance. 
The rooms added were the present dining-room, 
the parlor, and the chambers above these rooms. 
With the raising of the new part, little attempt 
was made to have the dimensions match, so that 
the rooms of the older building showed a diiferent 
floor level from those at the front. 

Later on, a two-story ell was added near the 
brook, consisting of a study and bedroom. These 
were occupied by Dorothy's brother, Henry Flynt, 
who was the famous Tutor Flynt of Harvard. 



Of the children born to Edmund, third, and 
Dorothy Q., two are well known in history. Ed- 
mund, the fourth, who married Elizabeth Wendell 
and became the father of the Dorothy Q. who 
married John Hancock, and the Dorothy Q., "My 
Dorothy," as Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes called 
her, who married Edward Jackson, and was the 
great-grandmother of the poet. 

After the death of Judge Quincy, the house was 
not used as a permanent residence by the family, 
for Edmund, who inherited it, had a fine home in 
Boston. It was kept open, however, and used at 
frequent intervals as a summer place. We read 
of large parties coming down by coach and horse- 
back from Boston, to be entertained at the Quincy 
mansion. Many a pretty bit of romance has been 
enacted within these walls, and many a famous 
traveler has found shelter in this house. 

When the wedding of Dorothy Q. to John 
Hancock was planned, preparations suitable for 
the important event were made, and a wall-paper 
was ordered from Paris to be hung upon the walls 
of the parlor. This room was destined not to be 
used, however, for the purpose intended. The 
Revolution broke out and Hancock was forced 
to flee for safety to Lexington. Here he was 



joined by his aunt, Madam Hancock, and Dorothy, 
on the memorable " i8th of April, '75.'* Dorothy, 
fearing the approach of the Redcoats, desired to 
return to Boston, to seek refuge in her father's 
house, but her lover knew only too well the hatred 
of the Tory for the Quincy family that had been 
shown when a British soldier thrust his rapier 
through the portrait of Dorothy Q., the niece of 
this Dorothy, and he forbade the attempted jour- 
ney. Wishing to assert her independence and 
also to have her own way, Dorothy insisted, and 
a lovers' quarrel ensued. Hancock and Samuel 
Adams were forced to make their escape to Wo- 
burn, with Madam Hancock and Dorothy, who 
continued on to Fairfield, Connecticut, taking up 
their abode in the family of Thaddeus Burr. In 
consequence, the Quincy mansion did not see them 
again for a long time. The patriot troops were 
stationed at Fairfield, and Aaron Burr, meeting 
Dorothy, fell in love with her. He paid her such 
serious attention that Madam Hancock became 
alarmed for the consequences and sent to her 
nephew, explaining the situation. 

John Hancock was a wise lover and wrote Doro- 
thy immediately, asking her if she had made him 
the hair chain promised and reproaching her for 



her unfaithfulness, sending with the letter a box 
of silk stockings. Dorothy, with little liking for 
his interference, continued her flirtation with 
Lieutenant Burr ; again Madam Hancock wrote to 
her nephew in such a peremptory manner that 
during a recess of Congress he came to Fairfield. 
Once there, he swept away all resentment, and 
Dorothy became his wife on August 28. 

Sir Harry Frankland, previous to this, came to 
the Quincy Mansion bringing with him Agnes 
Surriage, and a merry house party spent part of 
the time catching trout from the little black 
brook and cooking them in the old kitchen fire- 

Benjamin Franklin was also a visitor at this 
house, accepting the hospitality shown him by Mr. 
Quincy, and sending in return a stove, still shown 
in one of the chambers. A Flemish grape-vine 
was also sent by him to the family ; this took root 
and until a few years ago was in thriving con- 
dition. Many other men of note came as visitors 
to this noted mansion, including Lafayette, who 
was entertained here when he returned to America 
after the Revolution. 

During the Revolutionary period, the house 
passed out of the hands of the Quincy family. It 




S a. 









Plate LXXXIX. — Kitchen, (^)uincy Mansion; Parlor, 
Ouincv Mansion. 


has been recently restored by the Colonial Dames 
of Massachusetts, who have brought back as far 
as possible its old-time dignity. In the restora- 
tion, great care has been taken with the furnish- 
ing. The central hall is entered through the colo- 
nial porch. It is long and wide, wainscotted and 
showing above this an odd, colonial paper, rep- 
resenting an English hunting scene. The balus- 
ter and newel-post are hand carved and fine ex- 
amples of the early work of that period. 

At the right of the hall is the dining-room, 
hung with a quaint Chinese paper. This room 
shows high wainscot, wooden shutters, and the 
original beams cased in. The furniture is all of 
that period, including simple Dutch chairs, about 
1770, with rush bottoms. The sideboard, too, is 
of the seventeenth century, and on this is a knife 
box of the latter quarter of this century. The 
corner buffet is about 1740, and unlike the major- 
ity of these cupboards, is movable, instead of being 
fastened to the walls. The table is a beautiful 
old Empire piece and a china closet at one side 
containing several rare pieces, shows the shell 
pattern at the top. The fireplace is tiled in blue 
and white Delft, dating back to about 1750. 

On the opposite side of the house is the parlor, 


which still shows the old wall-paper intended to 
grace the wedding of John Hancock to Dorothy 
Quincy. Here are Venuses and Cupids in vivid 
blue, with garlands of red flowers, all as fresh as 
when first hung. The panel front of the chimney- 
piece was recently removed, and the original fire- 
place, fifteen feet wide, discovered. The back 
of this chimney is curiously bricked in herring- 
bone pattern. Many interesting relics are kept 
in one of the cupboards. There is a parasol which 
once belonged to Mrs. Hancock, a shoe of a little 
son who died in childhood, a pipe filler which be- 
longed to John Hancock, Edmund Quincy third's 
baptismal robe and cap, and a piece of the dress 
worn by Abigail Adams when she was presented 
at the Court of St. James. On the wall hangs her 
portrait showing the same gown. 

The chairs in this room are rare examples of 
Chippendale, 1791, and Sheraton, the latter being 
one of the best examples of the master's make, 
and showing the fan back design, which is more 
usually found in the South, rather than in the 
North. Here, as in the dining-room, are narrow 
shutters with hinged panels, which could be bolted 
and barred against attacks of the Indians. 

Back of the dining-room, and one step lower, is 


the old kitchen, built in 1636, the most interesting 
room in the house, containing a great many- 
household articles of early colonial days. The 
broad, hand-hewn beams bear the marks of the 
axe, and the great fireplace is flanked on one side 
by larger brick ovens and on the other by a secret 
passage. Back of the chimney is a ladder which 
leads to the secret closet above, also a little dumb- 
waiter shaft, through which food and water could 
be sent to the people in hiding. 

In previous years, an underground passage led 
out of the kitchen to the brook. Through this 
contraband goods were smuggled. The entrance 
to this passage has now disappeared, so that the 
exact locality is not definitely known. 

The window glass was made at the first glass 
factory in America. This was erected by a guild 
of Hollanders who had established themselves in 
Quincy. The worthies of Quincy objected to the 
large families of the emigrants, and they were 
driven out and moved to Maine. The first iron 
foundry in this country was built beside this 
brook, which was sometimes known as Furnace 

Above the kitchen is the Coddington Chamber, 
named for the original builder of the house and 



fittingly furnished with rare pieces of the colonial 
period. Above this is a very low attic, lighted 
from the upper panes of the chamber windows 
and reached by the secret passage behind the 
chimney. At the further end of this attic is a 
trap-door connecting with a second attic, through 
which one could escape by galleries below the 
dormer windows, and thence reach the ground. 

Across the hall is a smaller room known as the 
nursery. Tradition has it that John Hancock 
concealed himself from the British in this apart- 
ment, making use of the secret passageway. On 
one of the window-panes is scratched with a 
diamond the initials, "J. H." and again in hand- 
writing similar to his : "You I love and you 
alone." In this room are preserved the breakfast- 
table of John Hancock ; a linen chest which be- 
longed to the wife of William Penn ; various arti- 
cles of clothing that at one time were used by the 
Quincy family; a bed spread hand-embroidered 
on homespun linen quilted by Madam Burr and 
used in her guest chamber when Dorothy Quincy 
was staying at her house. 

Over the dining-room is the Quincy room, so 
named from the fact that many of the Quincy 
children, including the two Dorothys, were born 


■■^ 4, 

■ ^' 





— '"' '-;.i"~ 

--..- -a/ -- 



Plate XCl. — Chambers in the (Juiiicy Mansion. 


here. By a curious trick of fate, there still remains 
here a nail-studded chest which once belonged to 
George III of England, bearing the date 1790, 
One wonders, if the old chest could speak, whether 
it would pour vituperations upon the heads of 
those who brought the possessions of the tyrant to 
the colonies, to be stored in the Quincy mansion. 

Across the hall is the guest chamber with its 
canopied Field bed, and the little trundle-bed 
underneath, used in the olden times for the chil- 
dren of the family. The Franklin stove, presented 
by the inventor, is also in this room. Opening 
from it, and approached by a second staircase, 
we find the chamber of Tutor Flynt, here the 
recessed bed is an interesting feature. The room 
is furnished with fine pieces of the olden times. 

Every room in this house contains mementoes 
of the days of long ago. The house was one of the 
first to be built on American soil, and has sheltered 
some of our most important citizens. To-day it 
reminds us of the past, carrying us back to the 
earliest days of our country*s history. 




As a nation Americans have grown to feel a deep 
reverence for the homes of their ancestors, those 
stately colonial houses that were erected during the 
period of commercial prosperity. These mansions 
were built from about the middle of the sixteenth 
to the early part of the seventeenth century. 
Recently a wave of sentiment has swept through 
the country, awakening a desire to save the old 
mansions, many of which were fast falling into 
decay. Prominent among those which have been 
preserved is "Hey Bonnie Hall," a quaint house 
built in the Maryland manor-house style of archi- 
tecture, with long, projecting ells, a type pre- 
vailing throughout the South. "Hey Bonnie 
Hall" is situated on Papoosesquaw Neck in Bristol, 
Rhode Island. It was built in 1808 by Honorable 
William deWolf, great-grandfather of the present 

These Middletons and the family into which 



they married have been makers of history. They 
date back to the time of Charles V, of France, being 
among his followers. The name was originally 
St. Etienne, but for valiant services it was changed 
to deWolf. The Middletons have played an im- 
portant part both in English and American history, 
and the English branch of the family still occupies 
its ancient Middleton Hall. The American line 
starts with the immigrant ancestor, Henry Middle- 
ton, who settled in Carolina and became a con- 
siderable landowner at a time when there were 
only three states in the Union — New England, 
Virginia, and the Carolinas. This is shown in the 
old atlas inherited from the immigrant ancestor 
and still treasured at "Hey Bonnie Hall." Henry 
Middleton became a politician and was an im- 
portant agitator before the Revolution. For his 
distinguished services he was made president of 
the Continental Congress. He was not the only 
member of the family whose name has been handed 
down in history. His son Arthur was also very 
prominent and was one of the signers of the 
Declaration of Independence. The name "Hey 
Bonnie Hall," given to their country-seat in the 
Carolinas and transferred to the Rhode Island 
mansion, grew out of a pretty custom of Mrs. 



MIddleton, who used to sing a little Scotch song 
called Hey Bonnie Hall over and over again to 
please her grandfather. 

The house stands back from the road, being 
approached through a broad, colonial gateway- 
flanked on either side by beds of old-fashioned 
flowers. The semicircular drive is shaded by mag- 
nificent trees, which hide the mansion from the 
main road so effectively that it is not until one is 
half-way up the avenue that a glimpse of the house 
is obtained. 

The mansion itself is about one hundred and 
forty feet long, showing the most perfect type of 
Southern architecture. There is about it a dignity 
that is impressive and at the same time an air of 
comfort. The eastern portico is formed by two 
dignified Corinthian pillars, which rise to the very 
roof. The smaller columns at either side of the 
entrance door support a balcony protected by the 
porch roof. Verandas have been planned on either 
side of the house, facing north and south. The 
southern one overlooks the blue water of the harbor 
with the picturesque old town of Bristol in the 

Old-fashioned flower-beds are scattered here 
and there over the smooth lawn, making a land- 


Plate XCII. — Porch ot" the Middleton House, Bristol, R. I. 

Platk XCIII. — Hallway, Middleton House; Fireplace, 
Middleton House. 


scape picture that Is most alluring. The entrance 
door opens into a spacious hallway that is about 
twenty feet in width. The staircase at the left 
is five feet in width, an unusual breadth, even for 
one of that period. It has treads of solid mahog- 
any, with simple but substantial balusters on 
either side, topped with mahogany rails. This 
hall is used for a living-room and a hall combined 
and is well lighted by doors on either side show- 
ing well-proportioned fan and side-lights. Like 
many halls of the colonial period, there Is a 
groined arch. This was specially designed by one 
of the MIddletons who married Henry deWolf. 
This is supported at the corners by slender white 
columns, the woodwork being white pine. 

In every room are found examples of the most 
impressive pieces of furniture designed by the old 
masters. Many were originally In the Southern 
home and brought over by their immigrant ances- 
tor. Among them are some most artistic pieces, 
including Hepplewhite, Sheraton, and Chippen- 
dale. Two chairs of the latter make show shell 
pattern, one of the most popular of Chippendale's 
designs. Upon the Chippendale sideboard are 
specimens of thirteenth century silver, Including 
some tiny spoons that date back to the Tudor 



period, and saltcellars engraved with the McGregor 
crest. In the china closet are rare specimens of 
Lowestoft, Chelsea, and Sevres, while on the wall 
are hung original Stuarts, and paintings by Ben- 
jamin West. In many colonial mansions of that 
period we find the well-designed windows opening 
off the broad landing, a feature which has been 
cleverly introduced into the Middleton mansion. 
The type and characteristics of this entrance hall 
are more in keeping with Southern architecture 
than are most houses of New England. There 
is little ornamental woodwork, but a great dignity 
and charm. 

Two large, square rooms open on either side of 
the hallway, and the arrangement of the interior 
is on the exact lines followed in Southern manor- 
houses, a wing being introduced on either side of 
the main building. One of these is used for 
kitchen and servants' quarters ; the opposite wing, 
connected with the house proper by a covered 
passageway, is used as a carriage-house and har- 
ness-room. This gives the house interesting and 
unusual proportions. 

In the main building are two rooms, one on 
either side of the hall. At the right is the large 
living-room, and back of it the dining-room, both 



of which are filled with treasures, — wonderful old 
pieces that have been in the family since its earli- 
est days, each having its individual story. 

On the left are the double drawing-rooms and 
showing an elliptical arch that has a frieze motif 
with dentation ornamentation and reeded pilas- 
ters. The dividing arch is gracefully ended in the 
cornice. This is a feature in many colonial homes 
and is generally echoed in other rooms of the 
house. There are no carved wooden fire-frames 
in the lower story, but we find some of foreign 
marble that were set at the time the house was 
built. This is an unusual feature in houses of 
that date, where wooden mantels and elaborate 
hand-carving were the prevailing style. 

Many pieces of furniture are historic. Some 
belonged to President Adams, an intimate friend 
of the deWolfs, who were frequent visitors at the 
Adams house in Quincy, Massachusetts. Over 
the fireplace is a charming portrait, the work of a 
master, showing a child in an early eighteenth- 
century gown. It pictures Mrs. Nathaniel Rus- 
sell Middleton, when only six years of age. About 
the time of this painting she was visiting her uncle, 
and was present at the reconciliation of Lafayette 
and President Adams, which occurred during La- 



fayette's second visit to America. She was at that 
time a very beautiful child and attracted the atten- 
tion of the general, who finding she was of French 
descent, took her in his arms and kissed her. 

Every piece of furniture here is of the old-time 
type. The Hepplewhite chairs have been handed 
down from generation to generation, as has a great 
deal of the furniture that is used in this room, 
including the chair in which President Adams 

The long, or east room leads out of the parlor 
and is filled with rare furniture. The most impor- 
tant piece being the French piano, one of the earlier 
makes. This was imported by Henry deWolf 
for his daughter Alicia. It was considered of such 
fine quality that it attracted the attention of 
celebrated musicians all over the country. Pianos 
in those days were rarely seen, for the old-time 
harpsichord and spinet had scarcely gone out of 
style. Even to-day it would be considered a won- 
derful piece of work, with its ornamentations of 
gold showing scroll patterns and musical designs. 

Directly above the piano is hung the most fa- 
mous picture in the house, a Madonna supposedly 
by the hand of the Italian master Mazzuoli, 
better known as Parmigiana. This Madonna was 


















originally known as one of the world's lost art 
treasures, since its whereabouts were unknown for 
several years. There exists abundant historical 
evidence of its value, and prominent artists have 
pointed out the merits and the peculiarities that 
stamp this canvas as a Parmigiana, although defi- 
nite proof is lacking. 

The interior of the house is most interesting from 
an architectural standpoint. The proportions are 
well balanced, there is a dignity of design and a 
care in its finish that attracts experts. The value 
lies not so much in the workmanship as in the choice 
bits of design shown principally in the exterior, 
and that are well worth introducing into a twen- 
tieth-century home. 

The upper hall has an ellipitical arched window 
and a hand-carved balustrade. It is of the same 
proportions as the lower hall, and it, too, is fitted 
up as a living-room. Beautiful pieces of furniture 
are well chosen and well placed. A large book- 
case showing torch ornamentations contains rare 
books that cannot be duplicated. In each one is 
a bookplate, the work of Henry Middleton. A 
certain charm pervades the second story of this 
mansion, which does not lie in the furnishing but 
in the architectural details of the window, the pi- 



lasters, the hand-carving of the balusters, all of 
which are simple but unusual. 

Large, square chambers open from either side 
of the hallway, and like the rest of the house are 
furnished In seventeenth-century pieces. The 
fireplace, decorated with bow and arrow design, 
Is of ScagllonI composition and was found In an 
Italian palace. The furniture of this room is un- 
usually rare. There Is not a single piece of ordi- 
nary make. 

The bed is a fine example of Sheraton, showing 
a tester, and decorated In gilt bows and arrows 
brought out clearly on the white enamel. This 
bed, showing the cupId pattern, was purchased 
for the first bride of the MIddleton house. It has 
within recent years been repainted, but the pat- 
tern kept Intact. Unique are the draplngs of this 
bed, the counterpane being very rich gold and 
white satin lined with white and edged with 
French lace. The same Idea has been carried out 
In flounce and hangings. The chairs are also rare 
examples of Sheraton, and follow the color scheme 
of the room. 

A second chamber In this house has a fine four- 
poster imported from Leghorn at the time when 
the house was built. It Is a Chippendale and one 



of the best examples of that master's designs. A 
painting in this room is very valuable, being a 
picture of Lady Mornington, the mother of Wel- 
lington. It was painted by her daughter, Lady 
Berghurst, who posed her model with a gazette in 
her hand containing an account of the battle of 

A most interesting collection of furniture belong- 
ing to the deWolfes shows earmarks of the old 
masters' designs kept in the group of houses that 
were built by this distinguished family. The most 
prominent being the house of Charles deWolf. It 
was a large, square structure with roof sloping on 
all sides, and containing low-studded and spacious 
rooms that were heated by fireplaces only. An 
odd feature of this house were the hallways, run- 
ning at right angles and meeting in the center. 
Spanish furniture, richly carved and showing odd 
patterns, vied with French pieces in magnificence. 

The walls of the double drawing-rooms were 
hung with paper showing birds of paradise in 
brilliant plumage. Between the two rooms were 
gorgeous portieres of gold and silver damask. On 
state occasions the table bore solid silver candela- 
bra and goblets of gold, spoils of the early siege 
of Oyapoc. 



Here General Knox of Revolutionary fame was 
a frequent visitor. After his death the splendid 
estate of ten square miles given him by Congress 
and situated in Maine was sold, and much of the 
beautiful furniture was introduced into the deWolf 

A third house, which was destroyed by fire, 
was built by Captain Jim, the youngest son of 
old Mark Anthony deWolf, who built the first 
house for his family in Bristol. The builder was 
a most successful merchant, his estate at one time 
comprising nearly the whole eastern part of the 
town. The mansion was built at about the same 
time as *'Hey Bonnie Hall." It is of plain exterior 
with simple lines and shows fine proportions. 

Inside are twenty-eight rooms that were fitted 
up with the choicest pieces of Chippendale, 
Hepplewhite, and Sheraton. So wealthy was the 
house owner that when the fashion changed from 
English to French, and the Empire style came Into 
vogue, this furniture was replaced by examples of 
the best designs and construction, including both 
European and American styles. Many of these 
pieces were worthy a museum. 

On the walls were wonderful portraits by Copley, 
Stuart, Thompson, Alexander, and many other 



famous artists, as well as miniatures by Malbone 
and Hall. In many of these rooms the walls were 
decorated with veritable works of art. 

These old colonial houses with their beauty of 
line, their harmony of detail, and their air of 
dignity, richly repay study by architects and 
house owners. More and more we turn to them 
as models for our modern homes. They are a 
rich heritage from one of the most important 
periods of the nation's history, and will ever be 
cherished for the memories they evoke. Truly 
American in every respect, they will remain for- 
evermore as revelations of the sturdy spirit, the 
breadth of mind, the gracious hospitality, and the 
fine ideals of our forefathers who built them. 



Academy of Arts and Sciences, 32 
Adams, Abigail, 225, 248 
portrait of, 248 

Abraham (Captain), 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 
90, 92 

Anne, 89 

David, 86 

Jacob, 89 

John Quincy, 145, 192, 195, 257, 258 

Mother Anne (see Anne Longfellow) 

Samuel, 90, 245 

Stevens (Captain), 90 
Adams family, 90 
Adams Female Seminary, 90 
Adams house, 83-92, 257 
Adams period, 51, 54, 158 
Alden, John, 128 
Alexander (painter), 262 
Alfred, The, 186 
Allen, George, 219 
Andirons, 79, 161, 223 
Andover, Massachusetts, 212 
Andros, Governor, 218, 219 
Antigua, Leeward Islands, 220 
Antwerp, 190 
Apparitions, 115-117 
Appleton, Reverend Doctor, 148 
Arabella, The, 180 

Arches, 53, 54, 95, 117, 183, 221, 223, 257 
Arms, Stand of, 138, 139, 140 
Arnold, Colonel Benedict, 195 
Athenean Society, 144 

Bancroft, George (historian), 112 
Bennington, Battle of, 72, 174 
Berghurst, Lady, 261 
Bible, Baskerville, 173 

at Hollis Street Church, 114 
BiUiard room, 139 
Biographical Sketches, 146 
Black Brook, 241 
Blackburn (painter), 193 
Bloody Brook (Deerfield), 30 

Boardman, Offin, 103, 104, 107 

Booth (slave), 86-87 
Booth's bin (Adams house), 86 
Boston, Massachusetts, 10, 11, 43, 101, 
103, 109, 204, 231, 232, 233, 237, 
242, 244, 24s 
Boston Harbor, 38 
Boston Massacre, 40 
Boston Port Bill, 33 
Boston Tea Party, 180, 22g 
Bowdoin College, 144, 238 
Bowie, Captain, 103 
Bradford, Massachusetts, 181 
Braintree, Massachusetts, 241 
Bricks. 86, 95, 97, 104, 105, 119, 120, 

Bristol, Rhode Island, 252-263 
Brown, Reverend Arthur, 134, 135 
Brunswick, Maine, 144, 239 
Bryant, David, 181 
Buckets, Fire, 105, 128 
Bunker Hill, go, 92, 142, 225, 227 
Burgoyne, General, 81 
Burnett, William, 113 
Burr, Aaron, 245, 246 

Madam, 250 

Thaddeus, 245 
Burrill, Sarah, 30 
Burying Hill, Newburyport, 199 
Byfield, Massachusetts, 83, 114 
Byfield, Judge, 118 

Cabot, Joseph, 12 

Cabot house, 12 

Cassar (slave), 214 

Calhoun, John C, 145 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, 75, 100, 195, 

224, 230-240 
Card room, 140 
Carleton, Mr., 181 
Carolinas, The, 253 
Carpet, First, 162 
Carriages, 171, 190, 196, 197, 221 



Cartaret, Governor, g8 
Castle Island, ii 
Cato (slave), 214-215 
Ceilings, 28, 80, 226 
Cemetery on Stark estate, 169 
Chambers, 22, 47, 79-80, 107, 128, 165, 
225, 249, 250, 251, 260 

Secret, 160, 165 
Charles II, 184 
Charles V of France, 253 
Chebacco, 30 
Chimneys, 4, 13, 20, 21, 60, 72, 94, 106, 

117, 122, 202, 217 
China {see Ware) 
Christ Church, 224 
Cilley, Jonathan, 144 
Clay, Henry, 145 
Cleveland, President, 12 
Closets, 162, 163, 225 

Secret, 4, 10, 67, 78, 127, 249 
Coats of arms, 126, 199 
Coddington, WiUiam, 241 
Coddington Chamber, 249 
CoflBn, Oliphalet, 70 

Mr., 98 
Collections, Historic, 163, 127, 148 
Collins, Judge Benager, 45 

house, 45 
Colonial Dames of Massachusetts, '247 
Committee of Safety, 72 
Concord, Massachusetts, 61, 228 
Concord, New Hampshire, 141, 167 
Conelly, Horace, 16, 230, 239 
Confiscation Act, 227 
Constitution, The, 81, 193 
Constitutional Convention of 1788, 192 
Continental Army, 10, 32, 34, 68, 81, 91, 

128, 212, 227, 236 
Continental Board of War, 34 
Continental Congress, 253 
Continental Navy, 186 
Cook, Captain, 7 

EUsha, 184, 18s 
Cooke, Mary, 185 

Middleton, 185 
Cooke family, 179, 185 
Copley (painter), 126, 262 
Corwan (see Cuewin) 

Council Chamber, 138, 140 
Court of St. James, 248 
Courtship of Miles Standish, 239 
Courtyards, 191, 197, 202, 220, 221 
Craddock, Governor, 221 
Craigie, Andrew, 236-237 

Mrs., 236, 237, 238, 239 
Craigie bridge, 237 
Craigie house {see Longfellow) 
Cromwell, Oliver, 184 
Cupolas, 60, 69 
Curwin, Jonathan, 11 

Samuel, 11 

Dalton, Mary, 197 

Michael, 191-194, 197 

Philemon, 91 

Ruth, 197 

Tristram, 102, 191-197, 198 
portrait of, 192, 193, 199 
Dalton carriages, 190, 196, 197 
Dalton coat of arms, 199 
Dalton family, 194, 198, 199-201 
Dalton house, 100, 189-203 
Dalton vessels, 194, 198 
Dalton wealth, 193, 196 
Danvers, Massachusetts, 37-48 
Davenport, Captain, 11 
Davis, Jefferson, Letter from, 153-154. 
Dawes, Ruth, 228 j 

William, 228 
picture of, 228 
Deblois, Louis, 197 
Declaration of Independence, 73, 253 
Derby, Elias Hasket, 7, 51 

Elizabeth, 51 
Derby Mansion, 7, 8 
Derby Square (Salem), 7 
Derby Wharf, 29 
Derry, New Hampshire, 86 
deWolf, Alicia, 258 

Charles, 261 

Henry, 255, 258 

Jim (Captain), 262 

Mark Anthony, 262 

William, 252 
deWolf family, 257 
Dexter, Lord Timothy, 196 



Dickens, Charles, 238 
Dining-rooms, 19, 47, 57, 64, 78, 92, 137, 
164, 17s, 184, 211, 225, 247, 256 
Dixie, Miss, 6s 

Doorways, 44, 53, 72, 104, 105, 122, 124, 
125, 126, 136, 159, 172, 183, 198, 
208, 222 
Dorchester, Massachusetts, 241 
Dorchester Heights, 228 
Dover, New Hampshire, 121, 138 
Downing, Emmanuel, 28 

Sir George, 28 
Drawing-rooms, 47, 54, 64, 184, 199, 257, 

Dudley, Joseph (Governor), 112, 114 
Katherine, 112 

portrait of, 118 
Thomas, 112 
Dummer, Jane, 83 
Jeremiah, in, 112 
Madcun, 117 
Richard, 96, 109-112 
William (Governor), 112-115 
portrait of, 118 
Dunbarton, New Hampshire, 148, 167- 

East Cambridge, Massachusetts, 237 

East Weir, New Hampshire, 168 

Eaton, Nicholas, 96 

Elmwood, 231 

Empire period, 158, 164, 210, 247 

Endicott, John (Governor), 28, 41 

William Crowninshield, 12 
England, n, 27, 37, 83, 86, 96, 112, 113, 

161, 232 
Essex, Agricultural Society of, 34 
Essex (frigate), 41 
Essex County, 33, 35 
Evangeline, 230 
Everett, Edward, 237 
Exeter, New Hampshire, 70-82 

Fatrpield, 24s, 246 
"Faithful Pompey," Grave of, 199 
Fanlights, 52, 53, 159, 198, 255 
Federal Convention, 81 
Party, 35 

Felton, Cornelius G., 238, 239 

Fences, 202, 205, 208, 220 
iron, 60 

Fifty-ninth Regiment, 40 v 

Fireplaces, 4, 9, 17, 24, 29, 47, 64, 67, 72, 
78, 79, 82, 86, 92, io6, 126, 127, 
137, 138, 161, 165, 174, 17s, 176, 
185, 199, 201, 210, 211, 221, 223, 

247, 248, 249, 260 

First Regiment Essex County Militia, 

Flint, Alice, 30 

Flynt, Dorothy, 243 
Henry (Tutor), 243, 251 

Folsom, Dorothea, 74 

Fort Pickering, 40 

Fort Wilham, 174 

Fourth Military Company of Salem, 

* 33 

Fourth Regiment of Militia, 81 

Frankland, Sir Henry, 225, 246 

Franklin, Benjamin, 127, 246 

Franklin Pierce house, 141-156 

Frescoes, 125 

Friends (frigate), 103 

Fry, Colonel James, 212 

Furnace Brook, 249 

Furniture, 6, 17, 18, 19, 24, 29, 46, 79, 
80, 91, 92, 106, 107, 122-123, 127, 
128, 137, 138, 158, 161, 165, 173, 
176, 184, 185, 186, 194, 202, 210- 
211,240, 247, 260 
Adams, 157, 158 

Chippendale, 9, 29, 57, 107, 118, 126, 
157, 161, 162, 185, 209, 211, 224, 

248, 255, 260, 262 
Dutch, 107, 162, 224, 247 
Empire, 158, 164, 210, 247 
Field, 165, 185, 251 
French, 261 

Hepplewhite, 57, 106, 157, 162, 184, 

194, 199, 209, 210, 255, 258, 

Sheraton, 24, 57, 106, 107, 126, 137, 

157, 165, 209, 210, 248, 2SS, 260, 

Spanish, 261 
Windsor, 19, 106, 117, n8, 164 



Gables, aa 

Gage, General (Governor), 33, 37, 

Gardens, 8, 24, 44, 49, 131, 147, i5Q, i7i, 

183, 191 
General Court, 9, 31, 35, 37, 96, 103, no, 

186, 192 
George III, 251 
Georgetown, D.C., 202 
Gerry, Elbridge, 61 
Gilman, John Taylor, 74-77, 81 

Nathaniel (Captain), 82 

Nathaniel (Colonel), 70, 82 

Nicholas (Colonel), 70-73, 77 

Nicholas, Jr., 77, 8i 
Gilman family, 77 
Glass, American, 137, 172, 249 

English, 162, 17s 
Glover, Colonel, 232 
Gool, Mrs., 31 

Granary Burying Ground, 114 
Grate, Hob, 8 
Great River (see Parker) 
Greene, General, 235 
Greenleaf's Lane, 191 
Grey, William, 7 
Grill Room, 78 

Groveland, Massachusetts, 157-166 
Guest room, 4 

Hale, Nathan, 191 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 237 

Hall (painter), 263 

Halls, 4, 28, 45, 46, 52. 54, 62, 63, 78, 

91, 117, 137, 160, 161, 172, 183, 

208, 210, 211, 223, 240, 247, 25s, 

Hancock, New Hampshire, 143 
Hancock, John, 73, 138, 195, 244, 246, 

248, 250 
Madame, 245, 246 
Hancock house, 43 
Hartford, Connecticut, 75 
Harvard University, 10, 11, 30, 112, 180, 

186, 192, 224, 231, 238 
Harvard Law School, 224 
Harvard Observatory, 236 
Hathaway house, 26 

Haverhill, Massachusetts, 178-188, 197 
Hawthorne, Nathaniel, 12, 15, 22, 24, 
144, 145, 146, 149, ISO, 151, 152, 
153, 230, 239 

portrait of, 148 
Hawthorne family, 15 
"Hepzibah, Miss" {see Pyncheon) 
"Hey Bonnie Hall," 252-263 
Hiawatha, 239 
"Highfield," 84 
Hillard, George S., 239 
Hillsboro, New Hampshire, 141-156 
Hillsboro Bridge, 141 
Hillsboro Centre, 142 
Hilton, Martha, 134-136, 138 
Hinges, Strap, 45, 47, 118, 124, 136, 183, 

Wrought, 105, 172 
Hodges, Hannah, 215 
"Holgrave," 23 
Hollanders, Guild of, 249 
HoUis Street Church, 1 14 
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 244 
Hooper, Robert (King), 37, 41, 42, 45, 

Ruth, 192 
Hopkin's fleet, 186 
Houses, Adams, 83-92, 257 

Cabot, 12 

Collins, 45 

Craigie {see Longfellow) 

Cross-shaped, 94 

Dalton, 100, 189-203 

Derby, 8 

Dummer, 109^118 

First, 3 

Frame, 3 

Hathaway, 26 

"Hey Bonnie Hall," 252-263 

"House of Seven Gables," 12-26 

John Hancock, 43 

Kittredge, 204-215 

Ladd-Gilman, 70-82 

Lee, 59-69 

Longfellow, 10, 100, 224, 227, 230- 

Macphaedris- Warner {see Warner) 

Mansion {see Stark) 



Houses, Middleton Hall, England, 253 

Mount Vernon, 210, 230 

Oak Hill {see Rogers) 

Old Witch, II 

Page, 30, 44 

Peter Parker {see Savory) 

Pickering, 271-36 

Pierce, 141-156 

Province, 114 

Quincy, 241-251 

Rogers, 49-58 

Royall, 115, 216-229 

Saltonstall, 178-188 

Savory, 157-166 

Spencer-Pierce, 93-108 

Sprague, 9 

Square, 7 

Stark, 167-177 

"The Lindens," 37-48 

Types of, 94, 131, 159, 189, 216, 

Warner, 11 9-1 29 

Wentworth, 130-140 
House of Seven Gables, structure of, 

House of Seven Gables Settlement, 

Howe, Gurdon Saltonstall, 186, 187 

Mrs. Gurdon Saltonstall, 181 

Isaac R., 182 
Howe's Neck, Massachusetts, 241 
Hull, Hannah, 242 

John, 242 
Hutchinson, Anne, 242 
Hyperion, 239 

Independence Hall, PmLADELPHM, 63 
Indians, 96, 121, 125, 138, 211, 248 

portraits of, 125 

Indian War, 30 
Ingersoll, Horace, 15-16, 21 

Samuel (Captain), 15 

Susan, 12 

Susannah, 15, 17, 19 
portrait of, 24 
Ingersoll family, 22 
Ipswich, 27, 178 
Iron works. First, 121, 249 

Jackson, Edward, 244 

President, 64 

portrait of, 175 

Jefferson, Thomas, 195 

Josephine, Empress, 11 

Kent, Duke of, 237 
King Philip's War, 184 
King's Council, 121, 123 
"King's Trees," 170 
Kitchens, 4, 16, 78, 106, 115, 249 
Kit's Dancing Hall, 6 
Kittredge, Doctor John, 206, 215 

Doctor Joseph, 214, 215 

Doctor Thomas, 204, 205, 212-213, 215 

Elizabeth, 212 
Kittredge family, 205 
Kittredge house, 204-215 
Knockers, 9, 124, 159, 172, 183, 208, 

Elnox, General, 262 J 

Ladd, Nathaniel, 70 
Ladd family, 70 
Ladd-Gilman house, 70-82 
Lady Catherine (doll), 166 
Lafayette, George Washington, 65 

Marquis de, 63, 65, 174, 176, 177, 195, 
246, 257 
Langdon, John, 81] 

Governor, 127 
Lawson, Cecil G., 173 
Lean-to, 13, 14, 16 
Lee, General, 228, 235 

Jeremiah (Colonel), 42, 60,61,62, 67, 

Martha, 62 
Lee family, 62 
Lee house, 59-69 
Leghorn, Italy, 260 
Leslie, Mr., 33 
Letters, Autograph, 29, 149, 175, 187 

to Franklin Pierce, 149-156 
Leverett, John (Governor), 184, 185 
Lexington, Massachusetts, 61, 244 
Libraries, 28-29, 46, 102, 156, 174, 

Lidgett, Charles, 218, 219 



Lidgett, Elizabeth, 218 

Peter, 2ig 
Light Infantry, First company of, g 
"Lindens, The," 37-48 
Lisbon, Spain, 35 
Little, Mary, igi 

Little Harbor, New Hampshire, 130-140 
Living-rooms, 20, 55, 91, 118, 127, 137, 

162, 2og, 256 
London, England, 35, 103 
Londonderry, New Hampshire, 212 
Longfellow, Anne, 84, 85, 87, 88, 91 

Henry Wadsworth, 10, 233, 234, 238- 

William, 83, 84 
Longfellow family, 83 
Longfellow house, 10, 100, 224, 227, 230- 

Lotus pond, so 
Louisburg, Nova Scotia, 11 
Lyon, Mary, 90 

Macphaedris Aschibald (Captain), 
I 20-1 2 I 

portrait of, 127 
Mary, 123 

portrait of, 126 
Macphaedris family, 120 
Macphaedris house {see Warner) 
"Madonna," 258 
Maine, 249, 262 
Malbone (painter), 263 
Manchester-by-the-Sea, 61 
Mansion house {see Stark) 
Mantels, 46, 54, 55, 56, 64, 66, 106, 118, 

Manuscripts, 29, 30 
Marblehead, Massachusetts, 13, 37, 42, 

43i 59-69. 103, 192, 232 
Marcy, William H., portrait of, 148 
Marsh, Mr., 181 
Mary and John, The, 95 
Mason, Mr., 219 

Alfred, 144 
Masonic meetings, 160 
Massachusetts Bay Colony, 68 
Mather, President of Harvard, 112 
Maule, Matthew, 19 

McGregor crest, 256 

Mclntire, Samuel, 7, 43, 46, 47, 51, 52, 

54, 55, 56, 57 
McNeil, General, 174 

John (Lieutenant), portrait of, 174 

John, Mrs., portrait of, 174 
McNeil family, 147, 167 
Mead's Ford, 218 
Means, Jane, 148 
Medford, Massachusetts, 100, 115, 2:6- 

229, 231 
Medford Square, 225 
Merrimac River, 97, 190, 197 
Mexican War, 145, 171 
Middleton, Arthur, 253 

Henry, 253 

Mrs., 253 

Nathaniel Russell, portrait of, 257 
Middleton bookplate, 259 
Middleton family, 252, 254, 255 
Middleton Hall, England, 253 
Mill, Stark estate, 169 
MiU Pond, 28 
Millwood, Anne, 99 

Elizabeth, 99 

Thomas, 99 
Minerva, 51 
Miniatures, 173 

Mirrors, 23, 79, 91, 126, 127, 17s 
Monroe, President, 64, 195 
Moody, Samuel, 179 
Morgan, J. Pierpont, 45 
Morning-room, 56 
Mornington, Lady, portrait of, 261 
Morris, Robert, 71, 173 
portrait of, 175 

Robert, Mrs., 175 
Morris family, 167 
Morse, Samuel F. B., 172 
Moimt Holyoke College, 90 
Mount Vernon, 210, 230 
Muster Day, 206 
Mystic River, 10, 219, 228 

Napoleon, ii, 169 
Netherlands, The, 122 
Newbury, Massachusetts, 83-92, 93-108, 



Newburyport, Massachusetts, loo, loi, 

189-203, 235-236 
New Jersey, 33 
Newman, Mr., igi 
New Orleans, Louisiana, 85, 145 
Ninth Regiment, 145 
Norfolk County, 35 
North Andover, Massachusetts, 204- 

North Bridge, 33 
North Parish, 204 

Oak Hill {see Rogers house) 

Ohio, 170 

" Old Manse," 150 

Old Witch House, 11 

Oliver, Elizabeth, 231 

Henry K., 8 

Lieutenant-governor, 231 
Oliver family, 227 
Osgood, Major Samuel, 213 
Our Old Home, 146 
Ovens, 17, 67. 68, 78, 137, 201, 249 
"Overhang," The, 25 
Oyapoc, 261 

Page, Enoch, 181 
Page house, 39, 44 
Panelling, 16-17, 19, 20, 23, 24, 44, 64, 

66, 79, 82, 86, 117, 118, 125, 127, 

137, 161, 198, 200, 201, 208, 210, 

211, 221, 225, 226 
Papoosesquaw Neck, 252 
Parker, Moses, 159, 166 
Parker controversy, 99 
Parker family, 160, 165 
Parker River, 83, 95, 109, no 
Parlors, 23, 106, 117, 126, 148, 161, 173, 

200, 210, 223, 247. 
Parmigiana, 258, 259 
Passage, Secret, 132, 249, 250 
Peabody, Francis, 45, 48 
George, 196 
Joseph, 7 
Peabody, Massachusetts, 49-58 
Peabody family, 48 
Peacock Inn, England, 28 
Pentucket Club, 182 

Pepperrell, Sir William (Sparhawk), 224 

Expedition, 1 1 
Peter Parker house {see Savory) 
Pewter, 79, 163, 183, 211 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 34, 81 
Phillips, Joshua, 206 
Phipps, Elizabeth, 231 

Lieutenant-governor, 231 
Piano, "Hey Bonnie Hall," 258 
Pickering, John, 27, 28, 30, 31, 32, 35-36 
Theophilus, 29, 30 

Timothy (Colonel), 29, 30, 31, 32-35 
Pickering family, 27 
Pickering house, 27-36 
Pictures, 24, 48, 54, 55, 56, 66, 118, 125, 
126-127, 138, 139, 148, 172, 174, 
176, 192, 193, 194, 199, 211, 224, 
228, 24s, 248, 256, 257, 258, 261, 
Pierce, Anne, 99 
Benjamin (Governor), 100, 141, 142, 
149, 175 
portrait of, 148, 174 
Benjamin, Mrs., portrait of, 173, 174 
Charles, 100 
Daniel, 95, 98, 100 

Franklin (President), 100, 141, 142- 
147, 150, 152, 153. IS5. 156, 171 
portrait of, 148 
Joshua, 99 
Kirk, 141 
William, 100 
Pierce family, 98, 100, 167 
Pierce house, 141-156 
Pierson, James, 191 
Pipestave Farm, 202 
Pipestave Hill, 191, 195 
Pitman, Molly, 133 
Plates, 55 

Porches, 44, 52, 60, 72, 86, 91, 94, 96, 
104, 117, 132, 159, 179. 188, 190, 
198, 207, 208, 222, 239, 247 
Porter sign, 225 
Portraits (see Pictures) 
Portsmouth, New Hampshire, 81, 119- 

129, 130, 132, 133, 136, 138 
Prisoner's Room (Ladd-Gilman house), 

[271 J 


Privateers, loi 

Province Charter, 112 

Province Committee of Safety and 

Supplies, 6r 
Province House, 114 
Provincial Congress, 192 
Prints {see Pictures) 
Putnam, Amos (Doctor), 42 

General, 234 

Hannah, 42 
Pyncheon, Alice, 19 

Clifford, 20, 21, 23 

Colonel, 19 

Hepzibah, 14, 20, 23 

Judge, 20, 23 

Phoebe, 20, 23 

QuANTO (Indian), 87, 88 
Quebec, 196 
Queen Victoria, 237 
Quincy, Edmund, 242, 243 

Dorothy ("Q"), 243, 244, 245, 246, 
248, 250 
portrait of, 138, 245 

Josiah, 248 

Judith, 242 
Quincy, Massachusetts, 241-251, 257 
Quincy house, 241-251 
Quincy room, 250 

Relics, 29, 80, 91, 128, 137, i4r, 148, 165, 

166, 167, 171, 174, 182, 209, 210, 

211, 225, 229, 231, 240, 247, 248, 

250, 251 

Revolutionary Army, 205 

Revolutionary War, 8, 10, 30, 66, 77, 90, 

loi, 123, 212, 213, 224, 246 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 55 
Rhode Island, 241 
Rogers, Mrs. Jacob C, 49 

house, 49-58 
Roofs, Dutch, 122 
gambrel, 44, 171, 190, 197, 202 
ornamented, 183, 189 
pitched, 117 
sloping, 3, 14, 261 
Rouseley, England, 28 
Roxbury, Massachusetts, 109 

Royall, Elizabeth, 224 

Isaac, 220, 226-227, 228 
portrait of, 224 

Penelope, 224, 231 

William, 221 
Royall chariot, 221 
Royall family, 221 
Royall house, 115, 216-229 
Royall House Association, 228 
Royall Oak Tavern, 225 
Royall Professorship of Law, 224 
Rumford, Count, 71 
Russia, 190 

Salem, Massachusetts, 5-36, 38, 43, 45, 

48, SI. 57. 192, 215, 221 
Salisbury, Massachusetts, 195 
Saltonstall, Dudley, 185 

Gurdon, 185 

Leverett, 179 

Nathaniel (Doctor), 179, i8o-i8i, 

Nathaniel (Judge), 178, 185 

Richard, 109, 179 

Richard (Colonel), 179 

Sally, 182 

Sir Richard, 180 
Saltonstall day book, 181 
Saltonstall family, 178, 179, 186 
Saltonstall house, 178-188 
Saltonstall, Lake, 179, 182 
Salvator Rosa, 53 
Savory house, 157-166 
Schoolhouse, Stark estate, 168 
Scotland, 121 
Sewall, Anne, 83 

Hannah, 91 

Henry, 83, 84, 109 

Samuel (Judge), 69, 84, 178, 242 
Shaw, Miss, 236 
Sherburne family, 126 
Shortridge, Richard, 133 
Shute, Samuel (Colonel), 112, 113 
Silhouette, 144 

Silver, 63, 164, 182, 185, 211, 261 
Sims, Doctor, 214-215 
Sixty-fourth Royal Infantry, 39 
Slave quarters, 68, 116, 207, 221 



Slavfs, 62, 76, 86, 87, 107, 116, 195, 199, 

207, SI4, 230 

Smibert (painter), 118 
South Parish, 206 
South River, 28 
South Society, 100 
Sparks, Jared, 237 
Spencer, John, 9S-<)6, 97 
Sprague, Joseph, 9, 10 

Sarah, 10 
Squantum, Massachusetts, 241 
St. Andrew, Agnes, 10 
St. Etienne, {see deWolf) 
Staircases, 8, 9, 16, 28, 52, 53, 63, 66, 
los, 125, 137, 161, 176, 183, 198, 
209, 222, 223, 255 

Secret, 20-21, 66-67 
Stamp Act Riot, 180 
Stark, Archibald, 169 

Caleb (Major), 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 
174, 176, 177 

Charles Morris, 174 

Charles Morris, Mrs., 148 

Charlotte, 171, 176 
portrait of, 173 

Harriet, 171 

John (General), 168, 174, 177, 227 
jx)rtrait of, 174 

Madam, 171 

Molly, 227-228 
Stark family, 167, 176 
Stark house, 167-177 
Stark schoolhouse, 168 
State Room, 77, 79 
Steams, William, 10 
Steele, Governor, 147 
Stoughton, Captain, 96 
Stoves, Franklin, 127, 184, 211, 246 
Streets, Chapel (Portsmouth), 119 

Chestnut (Salem), 28, 51 

Daniel (Portsmouth), 119 

Derby (Salem), 5, 6, 12 

Essex (Salem), 9 

Federal (Salem), 8 

Main (Medford), 217 

Merrimack (.HaverhiU), 180 

Province (Boston), 114 

School (Boston), 113 

State (Newbury port), 100, 195, sofl 

Tremont (Boston), 114 

Turner (Salem), 13 

Washington (Marblehead), 59 

Water (Exeter), 70 
Stuart, Gilbert, 173, 175, 256, 262 

Jane, 173 
Suffolk County, 35 
Sullivan, General, 228 
Summer-houses, 147, 221-222, 227 
Sumner, Charles, 238 
Surriage, Agnes, 224, 246 
Swords, 149 

Tailer, Lieutenant-Governor, 113 

Talleyrand, 195, 196, 237 

Taylor, Anne, 70 

Ten Hills Farm, 217 

Tewksbury, 206 

Thompson (painter), 262 

Tidd, Jacob, 228 

Tiles, 64, 96, 120, 126, 127, 226 

Dutch, 223, 224, 247 

Scriptural, 10, 29, 185, 210, 225-226 
Tories, the, 219 
Tory Row, 227, 231 
Tracy, Nathaniel, 100-103, 235 
Tracy family, 108 
Treasury Room, 71, 78 
Trees, Oak Hill, 49-50 

Stark estate, 170, 171 
Trinidad, 10 
Tudor period, 255 
Turf and twig ceremony, 98 
Turner, John, 15 
Turner family, 17, 19, 22, 26 
"Twelfth Night Party," 233 
Types of houses, 94, 131, 159, 189, 216, 

Upton, Ms., 21 

Upton family, 16 

Usher, Lieutenant-governor, 219 

Van Dyke, 52 
Vane, Sir Harry, iii, 242 
Vamum, John, 182 
Vassall, Elizabeth, 231 

I 273 J 


Vassall, Henry, 224, 231 

John, 230, 231-232, 240 

"Major," Leonard, 231 
Vassall family, 227, 230 
Vinton, Frederick, ii8 
Virginia, 253 

Waldron, Secretary, Portrait of, 138 

Westbrook, portrait of, 138 
Wall-paper, 23, 57, 62-63, i47, 148, 185, 
200, 244, 247, 248, 261 

Oriental, 46 

scenic, 8, 46 

Zuber, 53 
Walls, 82, 104, 106, 122, 124, 138, 219, 

Ward, Elizabeth, 178 

John, 178 
Ware, 18, 127, 137, 221 

Bennington, 18 

Canton, 164 

Chelsea, 256 

Dresden, 173 

Lowestoft, i8, 162, 256 

Lustre, 18 

Salt glaze, 18 

Sevres, 256 

Staffordshire, 162 

Tokio, 17s 
Warner, Honorable Jonathan, 123-124 
portrait of, 127, 128 

Mary, portrait of, 127 
Warner house, 1 19-129 
Washington, D.C., 147, 193 
Washington, President, 29, 33, 34, 64, 73, 
76, 80, 81, 132, 136, 17s, 177. 193. 
19s. 232i 233. 234 

Martha, 175, 232 
Watertown, Massachusetts, 180, 232 
Weatherby's Black Horse Tavern, 61 
Webster, Daniel, 72, 80, 186, 187 

portrait of, 173, 175 
Wellington, Duke of, 261 

portrait of, 175 
Wendell, Elizabeth, 243 
Wentworth, Bennington (Governor), 130, 

John (Governor), 71, 122, 123, 133, 143 

Martha, 136, 139 

Michael, 136 

Sarah, 122 

Sir John, 136 
Wentworth family, 167 
Wentworth house, 130-140 
Wessacumcon, no 
West, Benjamin, 256 

Nathaniel, 50, 51 
West Indies, 84, 190 

West Newbury, Massachusetts, igi, 197 
Wheelwright, Reverend John, 77, 241 
White, Honorable Leonard, 197 

Samuel, 180 
Whit5eld, Reverend Mr., loo 
Whittier, John G., 178 

Joseph, 181 
Windows, 82, 198, 207 

arched, 63, 259 

barred, 80 

casement, 14 

colonial, 198, 209 

diamond-paned, 3, 79, 86 

domed, 159 

dormer, 44, 68, 72, 117, 171, 250 

Lutheran, 124 

recessed, 199, 211, 226 

stained glass, 187 
Winter Island, 40 
Winthrop, Governor, in, 180, 217, 218, 

Wise, Reverend John, 30 
Wobum, Massachusetts, 245 
Woodbridge, Massachusetts, 98 
Woodbury, Judge, 147 
Wood-carving, 8, 44, 45, 47, 51. S5< S^, 
63, 66, 118, 129, 137, 138, 147, 
165, 198, 199, 200, 206, 207, 210, 
222, 223, 22s, 226, 259 
Woods, English oak, 57 

pumpkin pine, 59 

white oak, 3, 28, 106, 119, 200 

white pine, 54, 78, 119, 200, 217, 223, 
Worcester, Joseph Emerson, 238 
Wyoming, 34 





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